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" RECORD. / 


May 1920— March 1922. 


issued in connexion with the 
Austral Avian Musetjm, Fair Oak, Hants, England. 

Edited by 

London : 
32G High Holborn. 


Dates of Ornithological Works . . 

A^dan Taxonomy 

A Name-List of the Birds of New Zealand 

A Name-List of the Birds of Australia 

A Name-List of the Birds of Australia {concluded) 

Forgotten Bird-Artists and an Okl-Time Ornithologist 

Snipe and Sandpipers : A Re-arrangement . . 

Sherborn and the Systematist . . 

Sherborn and the Systematist [conckided] 

Additions and Corrections to my List of the Birds of Australia, 
1913. and Check List, Part I., 1920 

Notes of Interest : — ^Lichtenstein"s Sale Catalogues, Berthold's 
Edition of Latreille, Encyclopedia londinensis, Turdus 
varins, Miller's Illustrations, Blyth's Catalogue, Fort 
Pitt, Chatham, Bird Collection, Haldemann's Zoological 
Contributions, Anthus grayi B]3., Hirundolanius, 
Cranellns, Reichenbach Again, Boddaerfs Hidden 
Names, British Bird Names, Another Overlooked Bird 

Amor opelia gen. no\. 

Additions and Corrections to my Check List, 1920 

An Extraordinary' Bird Book . . 

Captain Thomas Brown, Ornithologist 














Austral Ayiaf 


VOL. IV. No. 1. 

isstted in connexion with thk 
Austral Avian Museum, Fair Oak, Hants, England 


Subscription per Volume 12/- Net. 

WITHERBY & CO., 320 High Holborn, London, W.C. I. 

May 21th, 1920. 


Vol. IV., No. 1. May 27th, 1920. 

Dates of Ornithological Works 

"Or, \ 

As Appendix B. in Part V. of Volume VII. of my Birds of 
Australia, which was published on July 10, 1919, ! included 
the results of an attempt to provide exact dates for Ornitho- 
logical Works quoted in that work. This was a novel effort, 
and of course contains many imperfections, but my reviewers 
have kindly suggested that it was important enough to be 
reprinted in a more accessible place, and indicated the present 
vehicle. I have great pleasure in acceding to these desires 
and am thankful for the appreciation, and have also taken 
the opportunity of revising some items and adding additional 
information, so that this list is more complete and accurate 
than the preceding one ; but I have condensed it so that it 
gives references to the details, not all the details themselves. 
It must also be remembered that I only deal with the books 
referred to in connection with the Australian Avifauna. 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History. The first 
Magazine of Natural History was edited by Loudon, the first 
part being published on May 1st, 1828, and appeared every 
two months. Nine volumes A\'ere completed, each volume 
containing six parts, when Charlesworth continued it as editor, 
but only four volumes had appeared before it succumbed to 



the opposition of the Magazine of Zoology and Botany, which 
was brought out under the direction of Jardine and Selby, and 
of which two volumes were published, each containing six 
numbers, which had come out every two months from June 
1836 to February 1838, two numbers appearing together in 
August 1837. Then on March 1st, 1838, appeared the Annals 
of Natural History, a monthly journal under Jardine's editor- 
ship, and soon entitled the Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History is continued to this day, six months constituting a 
volume, and twenty volumes {i.e., ten years) form a series. 

Annales Paris Museum. Sherborn has collated this and 
the Memoires in the Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, Vol. XIII., 
p. 365, March 1914. 

Ann ALES Sci. Nat. Paris. Dates as given have been 

.-accepted, but a collation seems necessary, as citations in the 

text sometimes contradict the ostensible dates of publication. 

Auk. The quarterly Journal of the American Ornithologists' 
Union, which has appeared regularly January, April, July 
and October ; first so called in 1883, succeeding the Bulletin 
of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, founded in 1875. 

Austral Avian Record. Issued irregularly and dates 
given in the Birds Austr., Vol. VII., pt. 5, p. 444, July 10, 

Austr. Mus. Catalogues. Catalogue No. 4, pt. i., 
Accipitres, by E. P. Ramsay, 1876 ; pt. ii., Striges, by Ramsay, 
1890 ; pt. III., Psittaci, by Ramsay, 1891 ; and pt. iv., Picarise, 
by Ramsay, 1894. A second edition, edited and corrected by 
A. J. North, of parts i. and ii. was issued in 1898. Catalogue 
No. 12 of Nests and Eggs of Birds Breeding in Australia, 
prepared by North, has title page 1889, but was not published 
until late in 1890, being acknowledged in the Ibis, January 
1891, and refers in text to May 25, 1890. 

Bartram. Travels in Carolina, 1791. German translation, 
with additions by Zimmermann in 1793. See Auk, XXXI., 
pp. 86-91, January 1914. 

Bechstein. Ornith. Taschenb,. Vol. I., 1802 (pref. July 
11th); Vol. II., 1803; Vol. III. by Leisler, 1812 (pref. June 


BiLLBERG. Synops. Faunce Scand., 1828. See Austral 
Av. Rec, Vol. II., pp. 33-48, 1913. 

Bloxham. Voy. 'Blonde' Sandwich Islands, " 1826." pub- 
lished February 20, 1827. Refer Literary Gazette, p. 112, 
February 17th, 1827, and February 24th, p. 125, 1827. 

Blyth. Cat. Birds Mus. Asiatic Society. Title page dated 
1849, but was not published until after June 20, 1852, the date 
of preface. Author of series of articles in the Journal As. 
Soc, Bengal, which must be referred to in connection with 
Falconiform birds, and he also named genera and species of 
Australian birds in same Journal. 

BoDDAERT. Tabl. des Planch. Enluni. The preface is 
dated December 1, 1783. See Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III., 
pp. 31-51, 1915. 

BoiE. Two important articles in the Isis (Oken), the first 
in Heft 5, presumably for May 1822, the other in Heft 10, 
presumably for October 1826. 

Bonaparte. Papers on North American Birds in the 
Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist., New York, 1828. Series of papers 
popularly known by indefinite abbreviations and pages quoted 
from reprints ; also papers published in the Comptes Rendus 
Acad. Sci. Paris, were reprinted with additions, and these have 
also been cited. 

Saggio = Saggio distrib. Metod. Anini. verteb., published in 
parts in the Giornale Arcadico di Scienze Roma. I have not 
exact dates of publication, but Vol. LIL, p. 208, though 
usually quoted 1831, was not published until well on in the 
year 1832. 

Icongr. Faujia Italica. Issued in fascicules, so that date on 
title of completed work is misleading. 

Gomp. List Birds Europe and America. Advertised in the 
Athenseum and in Lit. Gazette for April 14th, 1838, but 
reviewed in Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. II., for April 
1838, No. 16, p. 237, where it is written: "We are much 
gratified at the appearing of this volume," having drawn atten- 
tion to its preparation two months earlier. No. 14, p. 109, so 
apparently January given by me previously is incorrect. 

Consp. Gen. Av. Pt. i., probably pp. 1-272, received before 


June 24, 1850, by the Paris Academy. Pt. ii. acknowledged 
same place February 3, 1851. These constitute Vol. I. 
Vol. II. was issued in parts, due to illness of author, which 
culminated in his death, and last part was issued afterwg-rd. 
Thus pp. 1-159 were issued in 1855 after April 15, pp. 161-184 
some time in 1856, and pp. 185 to end aft«r October 1, 1857. 

C.S.O. This indicates the Consp. Syst. Ornith. published 
in the Ann. Sci. Nat. Paris, Ser. 4, Vol. I., Nos. 2 and 3, 
pp. 105-152, received at the Paris Academy, May 15 and 
June 26, 1854. 

C.V.Z. Consp. Vol. Zygod., published in the Ateneo 
Italiano, Vol. 2, No. 8, May (15), 1854, pp. 116-129; received 
Paris before June 5, 1854. 

C.V.A. Consp. Vol. Aniso., published ibid No. 11, August 
(15), 1854, pp. 311-321 : received Paris before August 28, 1854. 
No. 12, September (15), 1854, pp. 377-382. 

BoNNATERRE. See Ency. Meth. 

Brandt. Descr. Icon. Anim. Russ. Nov. Aves., fasc. I., 
1836. All published; refer to Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, 
Vol. III., pp. 19-21. See under Tchihatcheff. 

Brehm. Beitr. Vogelkunde. Vol. I., 1820, preface July 1820 : 
Vol. II., 1822, pref. November 14, .1821 ; VoL III., 1822, 
pref. May 1822. 

Lehrb. Naturg. 1823, preface July 1823. 

Vogel Deutschl. 1831, preface July 1831. 

Vogelfang. 1855, preface November 8, 1854. 

Bbisson. Ornithologia: 6 volumes at one date, 1760. 

Brown, Capt. Thomas. Illustr. Genera Birds, pubhslied 
in monthly parts, each 4 plates, 1st part April 1, 1845, and 
ninth part December 1845, with 8 pages text, and in October 
number an additional plain plate. Was never completed. 
See Miscellany Nat. Hist. 

Brunnich. Orn. Boreal. Preface dated February 20, 

BuLLER. Essay Neiv Zealand Orn. Pref. dated February 1, 

The Essay on New Zealand Ornithology was reprinted in 
the Trans. New Zealand Inst., Vol. I., 1869, which was itself 


"later reprinted. In the first edition the Essay is separately 
paged : in the reprint the Essaj^ is paged consecutively with 
the Transactions. 

Hist. New Zeal. Birds, in 5 parts: pt. i., March 1872; 
pt. II., June 1872 ; pts. iii. & iv,, December 1872 ; andpt. v., 
April 1873. 

2nd Edition in 13 parts : pt. i., July 1887 ; pt. ii., October 
1887 ; pt. m., January 1888 ; pts. iv., v. & vi., March 1888 ; 
pt. VII., May 1888; pts. viii. & ix., August 1888; pts. x. & xi., 
November 1888 ; and pts. xii. & xiii., December 1888. 

Supplement. Vol. I before August 5, 1905 ; Vol. II. before 
July 1906. These dates need revision. 

Bulletin Brit. Oen. Club. Published with a short 
account of the meetings of the Brit. Orn. Club held monthly 
during the months from October to June inclusive, and each 
Bulletin bears the date of issue, but in some cases this is not 
exactly correct. 

Bulletin Sci. Nat. (Ferussac). This Bulletin was devoted 
to reviews of current literature, but original articles were also 
accepted. Exact dates have not yet been secured, those 
given on the parts being accepted. It is a very valuable 
record by which publication of other scientific works may be 
traced, contents of parts of serial works being detailed. 

Cabanis. Mus. Heineanum. Vol. I., 1851, after October 
23; Vol. II., 1860, after January 20; Vol III., 1860, after 
November 1 ; Vol. IV., 1864, after December 30, 1863. All 
after Vol. I. are by Cabanis and Heine. 

Campbell. Nests and Eggs Austr. Birds, published in 
2 vols, in 1901, acknowledged in Melbourne Vict. Nat., Vol. 
XVII. , p. 206, April 4, 1901. 

Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. In 
the Birds Austr., Vol. VII., p. 448, 1919, I gave details of 
volumes and dates of preface which were intended as dates 
of publication, but Richmond has suggested that these are 
not correct. I have so far been unable to get definite dates, 
but will furnish them at the first opportunity. 

Comptes Rendus. Reports of the meetings of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences of Paris, which were published weekly, and 


Bonaparte contributed many most important papers to 
the Academy. 

CoQUiLLE. In the Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., pts. 2-3, 
October 23, 1913, I gave details of publication of plates and 
text, based on the work done by Sherborn and Woodward 
in the Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. VII., Vol. 7, p. 391, 1901. 
CouES. Probably the most brilliant all-round ornithologist 
that has yet lived. Better known in connection with American 
works, such as his Key and Check List of North American 
birds, but must be noted here in connection with his Mono- 
graphs, which appeared in the Proceedings Academy Natural 
Sciences Philadelphia. 

A Monograph of the Tringese of North America ; 1861, 

pp. 170-205, sign. July-August. 
A Review of the Terns of North America ; 1862, 

pp. 535-559, sign. December. 
A Critical Review of the Family Procellariidse : 

Parti., 1864, pp. 72-91, sign. March-April. 
Part II., 1864, pp. 116-141, sign. April. 
Part III., 1866, pp. 25-33, sign. March. 
Part IV., 1866, pp. 134-172, sign. May. 
Part v., 1866, pp. 172-197, sign. May. 
As an Appendix to an essay on the Birds of the Colorado 
Valley Coues published a Bibliography of American Ornithology 
(U.S. Geol. Surv. Territ. Misc. Publ., No. il, pp. 568-784, 
after October 31), 1878, following with a second and third 
instalment, Bulletin No. 2 (September 6), 1879, and Bulletin 
No. 4 (September 30), 1880. A fourth instalment (on British 
Birds) occurs in Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Vol. II., 1880, pp. 359- 

CuviER. Tabl. EUm. 1798. In Journ. Typogr., December 
24, 1797. 

Lecons d'Anat. Comp., Vols. I. and II. ibid. April 19, 1800. 
Le Regne Animal, titles 1817, 4 Vols. B.F., December 7, 1816. 
2ndEdition, B.F., Vols. L, IL, IV., and V., April 11, 1829; Vol. 
III., March 27, 1830. See Griffith and Pidgeon. 

Daudin. Traite d'Orn., Vol. I., January 1800. Vol. II. , May 
14, 1800. See Richmond, Auk, October 1899, p. 325 note. 


The XlVth Volume of the Didot ed. Hist. Nat. (Buff on), in 
which Daudin gave specific names, was published in October 
1802. See Sherborn, Natural Science, December 1899, p. 406. 
DiCT. Sci. Nat. {Levrault). Details of publication in the 
Austral Av. Rec,, Vol. III., pt. 1., June 30, 1915. 

DiEFFENBACH. Travels in New Zealand. Pref. November, 
1842. Published middle of January 1843. 

DiGGLES. Ornith. Australia. See Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., 
pp., 68-72, 1912, Vol. II., pp. 137-153, 1915, and VoL III., pp. 
98-108, 1917, where full details of all this writer's work and 
sketch of his life appear. 

Dresser. Author of Birds of Europe, Monograph of Bee 
Eaters, and Monograph of the Rollers. 

DuMERiL. Zool. Anal., title 1806, but reviewed in detail in 
Journ. Typogr. for December 6, 1805. Translation by Froriep, 
1806, preface dated September 17, 1806. 

DuMONT. Author of Articles in the Diet. Sci. Nat. 

Elliot. Monograjjh of Pittidm. Pref. November 1862, 
published as one item in 1863. Copy in Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist, 
has a title page dated 1867 ! Second edition was issued in five 
parts, 1893-1895. Pt. 1, April 1893 ; pt. 2, December 1893 ; 
pt. 3, February 1894 ; pt. 4, September 1894 ; pt. 5, January 
1895. Author of other important works which do not concern 
Australian ornithologists. 

Emu. a quarterly publication, the organ of the Royal 
Australasian Ornithologists' Union, Vols., including July, 
October and January April, numbers. Bulletins apparently 
have no scientific standing. See Emu, Vol. XV., p. 163, 

Ency. Meth. See Sherborn and Woodward, Annals Mag. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. XVII., Ser. 7, p. 577, 1906, where full details 
are given. 

Erebus & Terror. See Gray. 

Eyton. Hist. Rarer Brit. Birds, 1836, in 3 parts. Pt. 1, Jan. 
1836 ; pt. 2 (February) 1836 ; pt. 3 (March) 1836. Reviewed 
in May 1836. 

Monograph Anatidce, published in June 1838. 


Fleming. Philos ZooL, published in June 1822. 

History Brit. Animals, published in March 1828. 

FiNSCH. Neu Guinea, 1865 (pref. August 1864). 

Die Papageien, Vol. I., 1867 ; reviewed August : Vol. II. in 
2 parts. Pref. August 8, 1868. 

FoRSTER, G. Voyage Mound the World, 1777, preface March 1. 

FoRSTER, J. R. Monograph on Penguins appeared in the 
Comment. Gottingen, the preface dated " Kal. Mai, 1781." 

Indische ZooL, 1781 : preface October 12, 1781. 

Enchiridion, 1788 : noticed Gotting. Anzeiger, March 27, 
1788, p. 489. 

Descr. Anim., posthumously edited by Lichtenstein and 
published in 1844, the preface being dated January. Some 
of the species had been previousl^^ published by Wagler, from 
Forster's MSS., in his Syst. Av., 1827, and Isis, 1829. 

FoRSTER, T. Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, published December 

Froriep, edited a Journal entitled " Notizen," which is a 
work of reference whence dates may sometimes be a]3proxi- 
mately gauged : also edited a translation of Dumeril's Zool. 

Gadow prepared Vols. 8 and 9 of Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. 

Galerie des Olseaux. See Austral Av. Rec, Vol. II., 
pt. 7, January 28, 1915, for details as far as yet known. 

Garnot. See Coquille. 

GiSTEL. Naturg. Thierr. Title 1848: preface Easter 1847. 
Second edition, title page 1850 : no other difference in my 

Gloger. Hand- und Hilfsb., published in seven parts, the 
first five, each 80 pages, appearing in 1841 : part vi., pp. 401- 
480 ? and Part vii., 477*-496, and pp. i-xxxxiv., including 
preface dated October 17, 1841, perhaps early in 1842, as that 
date appears on title page. Part VI. must have appeared 
in 1841, and VII. in 1842. 

Gmelin, J. F. Syst. Nat. See Hopkinson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
(Lond.), 1907, p. 1037. Pt. i., pp. 1-500, July 25, 1788 ; pt. 
II., pp. 501-1032, April 20, 1789 ; pt. iii., Nov. 20th, 1789. 

GoDMAN, F. J). Famous specialist on neotropical birds. 


who published a Monograph of Petrels, initiated by his col- 
league Salvin, the authority on this subject, who died before 
beginning it. 

Gould. Author of many illustrated works on Birds of 
Europe, Asia and Au[ 'raiia, etc. 

SynoiDsis Bnds Austr. in 4 pts., Pt. i., January 1837 ; pt. ii., 
April 1837 ; pts. iii. and iv., April 1838. 

Birds Austr. and Adj. Isl. Pt. i., August, 1837 ; pt. ii., 
February 1838. All published. 

Birds Australia in 36 parts, regularly dated March 1st, June 
1st, September 1st, December 1st, the 1st part December 1st, 
1840, and pts. 33, 34, 35 and 36 all dated December 1st, 1848. 
His Introduction was published in octavo form, so that it might 
be corrected before appearing in the folio edition, and was 
published August 1st 1848. A Supplement was then issued 
at long intervals: Pt. i., dated March 15, 1851; pt. ii., 
September 1, 1855; pt. iii., September 1, 1859; pt. iv., 
December 1, 1867 ; and pt. v., August 1, 1869. 

Handbook Birds Australia, 1865. Apparently in 2 Vols, 
in December 1865. Richmond has note of Vol. I. advertised 
in September 1865, but I have been unable to find any con- 
firmation yet. 

Birds of Nev) Guinea issued in parts. Begun by Gould 
and completed by Sharpe. Contains figures of previously 
unfigured Australian birds as Ailurcedus maculosus, Vol. I. 
pi. 38 (pt. I.), Dec. 1st, 1875 ; Scenopoeus dentirostris. Vol. I. 
pi. 43 (pt. X.), Sept. 1st, 1879 ; Chlamydodera orientalis 
Vol. I., pi. 44 (pt. XI.), Feb. 1st, 1880 ; Chlamydodera occipitalis 
Vol. I., pi. 45 (pt. X.), Sept. 1st, 1879 ; Microeca assimilis 
Vol. II., pi. 10 (pt. XI.), Feb. 1st, 1880 ; Heteromyias 
cinereifrons. Vol. II., pi. 15 (pt. x.), Sept. 1st, 1879 
Pcecilodryas albifacies. Vol. II., pi. 18 (pt. xiii.), 1882 
(month ?) ; Rhipidura dryas. Vol. II., pi. 32 (pt. ii.), Jan. 1st 
1876 ; Sericornis minimus, Vol. III., pi. 7 (pt. i.), Dec. 1st 
1875 ; Amytis goycleri. Vol. III., pi. 8 (pt. ii.), Jan. 1st, 1876 
Ephthianura crocea. Vol. III., jdI. 14 (pt. xxiv.), 1888 
(month ?) ; Cracticus rufescens. Vol. III., pi. 16 (pt. xxiii.) 
1887 (month ?) ; Xerophila pectoralis, Vol. III., pi. 27 (pt. i.) 


Dec. 1st, 1875 ; Sittella albata, Vol. III., pi. 28 (pt. xi.), 
Feb. 1st, 1880 ; Melithreptus l^etior. Vol. III., pi. 40 (pt. ii.), 
Jan. 1st, 1876 ; Glycij)liila subfaseiata. Vol. III., pi. 46 (pt. iii.), 
May 1st, 1876 ; Ptilotis frenata, Vol. III., pi. 49 (pt. ii)., 
Jan. 1st, 1876 ; Ptilotis flavostriata. Vol. III., pi. 50 (pt. ii.), 
Jan. 1st, 1876; CoUocalia terrsereginse, Vol. IV., pi. 38 
(pt. I.), Dec. 1st, 1875; Cyclopsitta maccoyi, Vol. V., pi. 7 
(pt. I.), Dec. 1st, 1875; Sternula placens, Vol. V., pi. 72 
(pt. III.), May 1st, 1876 ; Cacatua gymnopis, Vol. V., pi. 46 
(pt. XIX.), 1885 (month?). 

Gray, G. R. List Genera Birds. 1st ed., April 1840 ; 
2nd ed., September 1841. 

Appendix on sale April 1st, 1842. 

Genera Birds, see Richmond, Proc. U.S. Nat. Miis., Vol. 53, 
p. 596, note 1917. 

Cat. Gen. Suhgen. Birds. Although Introd. dated April 6th, 
1855, it does not seem to have been published before October 
1855, but may have been a little earlier. 

Handlist Gen. Sp. Birds. Pt. i., pref. dated May 10th, 
1869 ; pt. iL, pref. Nov. 9th, 1870 ; pt.m., pref. July 8th, 1871. 

Erehus and Terror. Issued in parts with plates and text ; 
in pt. 3, for instance, 8 plates and 4 pages text. Pages 1-8 
appeared in 1844; p. 9 (apparently in pt. ix.) according to 
Newton in June 1845 ; p. 20, according to Pucheran in 
October 1845. 

Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. A number of small books, entitled 
Lists of Specimens of Birds in Brit Mus. were issued, and in 
view of the case of the Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds the preface 
dates must be verified before acceptance as dates of publica- 
tion, though it was the rule in this Institution to date the 
prefaces for publishing date. 

Gray, J. E, Zool. Miscell Pt. i., pp. 1-40, Nov. 5th, 1831 ; 
pt. 11., pp. 41-48, signature March 1842 ; pt. ill., pp. 49-56, 
April 1842 ; pt. iv., pp. 57-72, May 1842 ; pt. v., pp. 73-80, 
June 1842 ; pt. vi., pp. 81-86, after June 29, 1844. Plates 
were prepared and in some cases never issued, but proofs may 
be met with as well as additional paged proofs of matter. 

Griffith. Edited an English translation of Cuvier's 


Animal Kingdom, which appeared in parts. The title pages 
bear the date 1829, but the plates are dated from November 
1827, to January 1830. About nine parts bound in three 
volumes, which are listed on January 23rd, 1830. Pt. 14 (1st of 
birds) December 1st, 1827 ; pt. 15, March 31st, 1828 ; pt. 16, 
August 6th, 1828, with 18 plates; pt. 19, May 21st, 1829; pt. 20 
with 16 plates, August 15th, 1829 ; pt. 21, with 21 plates, October 
31st, 1829. Further dates and contents of parts still desired. 

GuNNERUs. See Leem. 

Hartert has written a couple of papers on Australian Birds, 
and many on New Guinea Birds in conjunction with Lord 
Rothschild in the Novitates Zoologicse, which see. Mono- 
graphed Swifts, etc., in the Cat. Birds. Brit. Mus. and also in 
Das Thierreich. 

Vogel der Pcdaarktischen Fauna does not need collation here. 

Katalog Vogelsamml. Mus. Senckenh. Middle of January 

Heine. See Cabanis and Reichenow. 

Hemprich & Ehrenberg. Symbol. Phys. Title 1832, 
but issued in 1833. 

Horsfield Zoological Besearches in Java. Published in 
eight parts. Pt. 1, 9 pis. and text, July 1821 ; pt. 2, Novem- 
ber 1821 ; pt. 3, February 1822 ; pt. 4, June 1822 ; pt. 5, 
October 1822 ; pt. 6, April 1823 ; pt. 7, October 1823 ; pt. 8, 
April 1824. Contents of parts given in instructions to binders 
at end of preface. 

Ibis. Journal of British Ornithologists' Union, published 
quarterly in January, April, July and October, fairly regularly. 

Illiger. Prodr. Ma^nm. et Avium, 1811, preface dated 

Illustr. Ornith. See Jardine and Selby. 

Illustr. Zool. See Lesson, Swainson and Wilson. , 

Isis. A German periodical, edited by Oken, which appeared 
monthly, though often late. 

Jardine. Editor of the Naturalists' Library, and Contribu- 
tions to Ornithology, which appeared irregularly and no accu- 
rate collation has yet been made of the latter. Collaborated 
with Selby in the Illustr. Ornith., details of which are given by 


Sherborn in the Ibis, April, 1894, and corrected in the Ibis, 
1899, p. 483. For the second series the dates as now known 
read : pt. 1, Feb. 11, 1837 ; pt. 2, May 27, 1837 ; pt. 3, 
December 1, 1837 ; pt. 4, June 30, 1838 ; pt. 5, March 23, 
1838; pt. 6, Feb.. 22, 1840; pt. 7, July 25, 1840; pt. 8, 
unknown ; pt. 9, June 15, 1843. Each part should contain 
six plates. 

Jarocki. Zoologiia. See Austral Av. Rec, Vol. III.,pt. 6, 
p. 142, et. seq., 1918. 

Journal fur Ornithologie. Begun by Cabanis, and six 
hefts appeared the first jea,Y, but soon became behind and no 
reliance can be placed upon ostensible dates of publication. 

Kaup. SJcizz. Entwich. Naturl. Syst., 1829, preface dated 

Class. Saugeth. u. V'ogel. Published March 15, 1844. Author 
of many articles in the Isis, Jardine's Contr. Ornith., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. (Lond.) ; etc. 

Kerr. Animal Kingdom, 1792, preface dated February. 

Keyserling & Blasius. Ornith. Euro-pa, 1840, preface 
dated October 1839. Reviewed in Isis, April 1840, where 
reviews were not up-to-date. 

King. Survey Intertroj). Coasts Austr. Title 1827 (!) but 
actually issued April 26, 1826; reviewed in Dublin Philos. 
Journ. for May 1826. 

Koch. Syst. baier. Zool., 1816, published before July. 

KuHL. Conspectus Psittacorum, issued in Nov. Act. Phys. 
Acad. Leop. Carol., Vol. X., 1820, pref. October ; Monograph 
of Petrels in the Beitr. Vergl. Anat., 1820, pref. dated April 7th. 

Lacepede. Tahl. Oiseaux, 1799. Reviewed in paper for 
end December. See Richmond, Auk, 1899, p. 325, and 
Sherborn, Natural Science, 1899, p. 406. 

Latham. Suppl. Gen. Synops., 1787 ; preface dated 
May 1st. 

Index Ornith., 1790, acknowledged by Philos. Soc. London, 
December 9, 1790. 

' Second Suppl. Gen. Synops. has plates dated May 30, 1801, 
and the Suppl. Index Ornith. was simultaneously published. 

Leach. Zool. Miscellcmy appeared in parts, 1st part on 


Jan. 1st, 1814. Vol. I. having title page 1814 ; Vol. II., 1815 ; 
Vol. III. appeared as one item, January 1, 1817. Five plates 
and about one signature of text in each part. Cj. Isis, 1817, 
p. 260. 

Syst. Catal. Brit. Birds, 1816, pref. October 30. 

Lear. Illustr. Psittacidce. See Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., 
p. 23, 1912. 

Leem [Knud.] Beskrivelse over Finmarkens Lapper, 1767 ; 
pref. elate. January 29. 

Lesson. Manuel d'Ornith. Acknowledged B.F., June 28, 

Traite d'Ornith. February 13, 1830-June 11, 1831. For 
details of this and Illustr. Zool. and Genturie- de Zool. see 
Nov. Zool., Vol. XVIII, pp. 12-14, 1911. 

Echo du Monde Savant. Articles by Lesson which appeared 
in this periodical have lately been reprinted by Menegaux. 

Descr. Marnm. et Ois., published in April 1847. 

Compl. de Buffon. Exact dates not known to me. See 
also under Coquille. 

Levaillaistt. Hist. Nat. Perroquets. Vol. I. , An. IX. = 1 80 1 ; 
Vol. II., An. XIII. -= 1805 ; Vol. III. by Bourjot St. Hilaire 
said to have been begun in March 1837, but Athenaeum, 
January 23rd, 1836, p. 73, sa3-s Pt. 1 has appeared. Another 
source gives Livr. 15-24 as 1836 ; 25-26 as 1837. Another 
says completed in 29 parts and 110 plates. A Collection 
des Perroqnetes (possibly this work) is referred to in Wiegm. 
Archiv. and the following data given : Livr. i.-iv., 1835 ; 
Livr. XII. -XXIV, 1835, each part with 4 plates. 

Lewin. Birds of Neiv Holland, 1808, probably before 
September. Other editions of httle technical importance, 
1813, 1822 and 1835. 

LiCHTENSTEiisr. Cat. Berlin Museum. 1st ed. 1816; 2nd 
ed. 1818, before August. (Isis, 1818, col. 1103, Litt. Anz.) 
Enlarged edition 1823, preface September. Important one 
published in 1854, prefaced January 10, and others were 
issued at various dates between 1819-1842 or later, one of 
which Mas reprinted in Journal fiir Orn., 1863, pp. 54-60. 

See Birds Austr., Vol. VII., p. 457. 


LiNNE, Fauna Suecica. 1st ed. prefaced February 25, 1746. 
Syst. Nat. lOth Edition, date accepted, January 1, 1758. 
Fauna Suecica, 2nd ed. prefaced July 28, 1761. Syst. Nat. 
12th ed. prefaced May 24, 1766. 

Littler. Handbook Birds Tasm., 1910. Reviewed Emu 
July 1st 1910, London, December 10.. 

Macgillivhay. Hist. Brit. Birds, Vol. I., prefaced May 1, 
1837 ; Vol. II., prefaced June 1, 1839 ; Vol. III., prefaced 
June 1, 1840. On sale July 1, 1840. Vol. IV., prefaced March 
20, 1852 ; and Vol. V., prefaced July 31, 1852. 

Rapacious Birds Great Britain. Published January 16, 1836. 

Manual Land Birds. Published November 28, 1840. 

Manual Water Birds. Published May 28, 1842. 

Mag. de Zool. Plates and text issued irregularly, and 
sometimes text dated, but these are dates of manuscript only, 
not of publication. No exact collation yet known. 

Mathews. Birds Austr. Details given in Vol. VII, p. 
458, 1919. 

Handl. Birds Australasia. January 1908 as Supplement 
to Emu, Vol. VII. ■ 

List Birds Australia,. December 1913. 

Reference List to the Birds of Australia was published in the 
Nov. Zool, Vol. XVIIL, pp. 171-656, January 31, 1912, 
following two important papers on nomenclature in the same 
Journal, containing details of dates of publication. Vol. XVII. , 
pp. 492-503, December 15, 1910, and Vol. XVIIL, pp. 1-22, 
June 17, 1911. Lias also published many papers in the Ibis, 
Emu, Auk, South Australian Ornithologist, etc., as well as 
majority in the Austral Avian Record. 

Mathews & Iredale. Reference List of the Birds of Neio 
Zealand appeared in Ibis, 1913, pp. 201-263, April 2, pp. 402- 
45, July 1. 

Meyer & Wiglesworth. Birds of Celebes. A most 
important work to students of Australasian birds. Two 
volumes 1898 issued together and received at British Museum, 
June 25, 1898. Dates are used as signatures, appearing con- 
tinuously throughout the work, but are dates of printing of 
sheets, not of publication, the first being October 4, 1897, and 


last (contents) May 30, 1898, the preface being dated April 
30, 1898. 

Meyer & Wolf. Taschenh. deutsche Vogel, 1810. Pt. i., 
pp. 1-310, preface dated August 20, 1809 ; pt. ii., pp. 311-614, 
preface elated March 1810. Zusatze und Bericht. by Meyer 
1822, preface dated April. 

Miscellany Nat. Hist. Vol. I., Parrots by Lauder and 
Brown, 1833. Advt. states that " On November 16 will be 
published another work." 

Miller, J. F. Var. Subj. Nat. Hist., plates only bearing 
dates. See Riley, Auk, 1908, p. 269. Republished with text 
by Shaw in 1798 under the title Cimelia Physica. 

Muller, p. L. S. Suppl. Natursyst., preface dated 
January 4, 1776. See Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philacl., 
1864, pp. 234-257. 

Muller, S. VerhancU. Nat. Gesch. Land- en Volkenk. See 
Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., p. 24, 1912. 

Mus. Carlsonianum. See Sparrman. 

Mijs. Heksteanum. See Heine, and Reichenow. 

Mus Leverianum. See Shaw. 

Mus. DES Pays-Bas. Under this title Schlegel published a 
series of Monographs of Birds which have not yet been accu- 
rately collated with dates of publication. See Birds Austr., 
Vol VII., pp. 464 and 476, 1919. 

Mus. Senckenberg. In three volumes issued in parts. 
The preface to Vol. I. is dated October 1834, which appears 
to be the date of issue of the 3rd. part. In the British 
Museum, Natural History, the copy is bound with the 
wrappers preserved, and from these I have secured the 
following information : 

I. heft 1 pp. 



I.— V. End Sept. 




VI.— IX. & XL 






II. heft 1 


I.— VI. 










III. heft 1 


L— V. 




VI.— XII. 







Katalog Vogelsamml. Mus. Senckenh., prepared by Hartert, 
was published after middle of January 1891. 

Naumannia. PubKshed quarterly but at first of quite 
irregular occurrence, and towards the end apparently also 
failed. Exact dates have not been ascertained, so I put 
forward the following details : 

Vol. I. in 4 pts. The Vorwort dated September 1849 ; 
pt. 2 dated in text February 1850 ; pt. 3, October 1850 ; 
and pt. 4, April 10, 1851. 

Vol. II. apparently 3 parts only. Pt. 1 dated in text 
September 9, 1851 ; pt. 2 November 1852 ; and pt. 3, 1852, 
only probably early in 1853. 

Vol. III. quarterly. Pref. 1853 February. Latest date 
November 8, 1853. 

Vol. IV. quarterly. Latest date November 1854. 

V. Do. Latest date October 1855 ; contains 

advertisement of sale of birds' eggs to take place at Stevens 
in February 1856. 

Vol. VI. quarterly. Latest date October 1856. 
VII. Do. November 1857. 

VIII. for 1858 includes date May 1869. 

Newton. Famous British ornithologist, whose publications 
are few, but the Dictionary of Birds, in which he was assisted 
by Gadow, Shufeldt, etc., contains a sjaioptic resume of 
ornithological writers, which is peculiarly valuable, as in that 
study Newton has never been surpassed. 

NiTZSCH. Ohserv., pref. dated Ides September 1829. 
Pterylographie, pref. dated May 20, 1840. 

North. Auslr. Mus. Special Catalogue No. 1 was pubHshed 
in parts, details of which are given Birds Austr., Vol. VII., 
p. 460, 1919. 

Rep. Horn. Sci. Exped., pt. ii., Zool. Aves by North, 
published in February 1896. 

Nouv. DiCT. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed. See Nov. Zool.,- 
Vol. XVIII. , p. 18, 1911. Two prints exist with very Kttle 

Nov. Zool. A periodical issued in connection with the 
Tring Museum at irregular intervals, parts being dated. 


Oken. Editor of the Isis. 

Lehrh. der Naturg., 1816. Allg. Naturg., Vol. VII., pt. i. 
(Thierreich, Vol. IV., pt. i.), 1837, 7iot 1841 as given in my 
previous paper. 

Ornith. Monatsbericht. A monthly record of ornithology. 

Pallas. Sj)icilegia Zool. Vol. I. in ten fascicules : pref. 
dated Kalend Mai 1767: fascicules dated, 10th, 1774; 11th, 
1776 ; and 14th and last, 1800. 

Beise Buss. Beichs, Vol. I., 1771, pref. April 28, O.S. 1770 ; 
VoL II., 1773, pref. April 19, O.S. 1772; Vol. III., 1776, 
pref. February 10, O.S. 1776. 

Zoogr. Bosso-Asiat. Though copies exist with titles dated 
1811 and 1831, date of publication is now accepted as 1827. 
See Vroeg. 

Peale. See U.S. Expl. Exped. 

Perry. Arcana, issued in 21 monthly parts each, 4 plates, 
beginning January 1, 1810. See Victorian Naturalise, Vol. 
XXIX., p. 7 et seq., May 1912. 

Phillip. Voyage to Botany Bay, 1789. Pref. dated 
November 2, 1789, but last plate November 26, 1789. 

Pole Sud. Plates of Birds only bear vernacular names, 
save those of Petrel bills, where Latin names are given. These 
plates were issued between 1843 and 1846. The text, by 
Pucheran, was not issued until 1853 ; later copies ascribe 
the text to Jacquinot and Pucheran. 

Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales. Dates of early 
parts given in Vol. X. of the second series, p. 533, and refer 
also Birds Austr., Vol. VII., p. 462, 1919. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.). Dates given in the July 1893 

Pucheran. Contributed a series of important papers on 
the types of Cuvier, Lesson and Vieillot, which were indexed 
by Hartlaub, Journ. fijr Ornith., 1855, p. 417. 

QuoY & Gaimard. Authors of Birds in Voyages Uranie 
and Physicienne and of Astrolabe. Full detail have been 
published by Sherborn and Woodward in the Annals Mag. 
Nat. Hist., Ser. 7, Vol. VII., April 1901, p. 392, and Vol. VIII. , 
October 1901, p. 333. 


Rafinesque. Analyse de la Nature, 1815. See Auk, 
1909, pp. 42-55. 

Ramsay, E. P. Tab. List Austr. Birds. 1st edition received 
in London, December 8, 1888 ; 2nd edition published after 
July 1891. 

Ranzani. Elem. di Zool. Vol. III., pt. ii., published 
October 7, 1821, the date is given at end of volume. Cf. 
BuU. Sci. Nat. (Ferussac), Vol. I., pp. 163-165, 1824 ; Vol. VII., 
p. 339, 1826. 

Reichenbach. Author of numerous ornithological works, 
whose dates of exact publication are at present uncertain. 
Meyer, in his Index zu L. Reichenbach's Ornitli. V^^erken, 
1879, does not deal with this, simply citing dates on titles 
which are not correct in detail. Refer to Birds Austr., Vol. 
VII., p. 463, 1919. 

Reichenbach, as the second volume of the Vollstdnd. Naturg. 
Vogel, issued Die neuentdecJcten Vogel NeuhoUa7ids, simply a 
translation of the text of Gould's Birds of Australia. Pt. i., 
pp. 1-248, appeared in 1845, pt. ii., pp. 1-172, in 1847, and 
pt. III., pp. 173-368, 1850. A few emendations and errors 

I reject the names in the Avium Syst. Nat. based on figures 
of heads, \^dngs and feet as indeterminable, and in some cases, 

Reichenow. Vogel Zool. Garten, pt. i., 1882, pp. 1-278, 
pref. May ; pt. 2, pp. 279-456, i.-xix., 1884. In this un- 
expected place the author proposes a novel classification of 

Author of Vogel Afrikas ; and part author of the Nomencl. 
Mus. Heine with pages dated 1882-1890, title page by Heine 
and Reichenow, and preface by Reichenow dated September 
1890, and issued in one item after that date. 

Revue Mag. de Zool. Soc. Cuv. Appeared monthly, 
the June number appearing in the first fortnight of July and 
so on, though at times publication was several months late. 

Richmond. Avian Name Recorder. Has published three 
Lists of generic names of birds supplementary to Waterhouse's 
Index Generum Avium, determining exact dates of publication. 


(1) Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 24, pp. 663-729, May 2, 1902. 

(2) 35, pp. 583-655, December 

16, 1908. 

(3) 53, pp. 565-636, August 

(16=) 25th, 1917. 
These are the most important aids to the ornithologist j^et 

RiDGWAY. Water Birds of North America in the Mem. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. Harvard, Vol. XIII., Introd. dated March 31, 
1884, Author of the Birds of North and Middle America 
issued as Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum of which 
8 parts have now been issued, the last just recently in 1919 
dealing with the Characlriiformes. 

Rothschild. Avifauna of Laysan. Pt. 1, pp. 1-58, 
August 1893 ; pt. 2, pp. 59-126, November 1893 ; pt. 3, 
pp. 127 to end, December 1900. 

Extirict Birds, published in one volume, 1907. 

Co-editor of Nov. Zool., his own Journal. Monographed 
the family Paradiseidae in Das Tierreich. 

Salvador!. Omit. Papuasia e Moluche. . I have given 
details in the Birds Austr., Vol. VIL, p. 463, 1919, but find 
that the first volurjae was first published in the Mem. real Accad. 
Sci. Torino, Ser. II., Vol. XXXIII. , and though the preface 
is dated June 15, 1879, the title page is dated 1881 and it was 
received at the Brit. Mus. in August 1881, yet separate copies 
bear date 1880. The second and third volumes were issued 
separately, the Aggiunte then again being issued in parts in 
the Mem. Torino, for details of which see Birds Austr., Vol. 
VIL, p. 464, 1919. Also wrote monographs on Parrots, 
Pigeons, Ducks, etc., in the Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. 

Salvin. Famous specialist on neotropical birds, but wrote 
the monograph on the Petrels in the Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. 

Saunders. Authority on British Birds, but wrote the 
monograph on Gulls and Terns in the Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. 

Savigny. Descr. de VEgyiM. Published in 1809. See 
Sherborn, Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1897, p. 285. Explanation 
to plates not issued until 1826, when they were edited by 


ScHLEGEL. De Dierentuim. Title page dated 1872, but 
issued in fifteen parts of 40 pp. each. The cop}^ in my library 
has the covers bound in, but no dates appear on these. Schlegel 
edited Mus. des Pays-Bas, but accurate dates not yet determined. 

ScHRANCK. Fauna Boica, Vol. I., 1798, pref. July 20, 
1797; VoL 11., 1801, pref. March 12, 1801 ; Vol. III., 1803; 
pref. November 8, 1802. 

ScopoLi. Annus. Hist. Nat., I., 1769; II., 1709; III., 
1769 ; IV., 1770 ; V., 1772. 

Introd. Hist. Nat., 1777. 

Delic. Florce et Faun. Insubr., 1786-88. 

Selby. Author of works on British Birds, who collaborated 
with Jardine in the Illustrations of Ornithology, which see. 
W^rote the volume in the Naturalists' Library (Jardine) dealing 
with Pigeons, which was published between May and August 
1835, date at issue. 

Seebohm. Famous worker on British Birds, who wrote 
monograph on V\^arblers and Thrushes in Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus. and a separate monograph on Thrushes and Geog. 
Distribution of Charadriiformes, which appeared in parts, 
but which I have not traced ; and, though important, dates 
of publication are not technically valuable. 

Sharpe, R. B. Head of Bird Department of British 
Museum for many j'ears. Wrote Monograijli of Kingfishers, 
which appeared in 15 parts, pt. i., July 1, 1868 and xiv. 
and XV., January 1, 1871. Dates and contents of parts given 
in preface. Initiated the Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., of which he 
wrote about half the monographs. Completed a Handlist 
Genera Species Birds Brit. Mus., in which no references are 
given, and consequently it is only a very incomplete guide to 
known species of birds. Sharpe published many papers in the 
Ibis, etc. , and also important monographs ; the birds in the Zoot. 
Coll. Alert, 1884 (pref. June 20), are important to Australians, 
and especially the articles in the Hist. Coll. Nat. Hist. Brit. 
Mus., Vol. II., 1906; where Sharpe reviewed the paintings 
made by Forster, Ellis and Watling dealing with Australian 
birds. Attention is again drawn to it, as it was not included 
in the Zoological Record for 1906, though it is a very important 


article. Sharpe also completed Gould's Birds of New Guinea 
wherein are figured Australian Birds. 

Sharpe & Wyatt. Monogra'ph of the Hirundinidce, bound 
up in two volumes dated 1885-1894, was published in 20 parts 
most irregularly as follows : Pt. i., September 1885 ; pt. ii., 
December 1885 ; pts. iii. and iv., July 1886 ; pts. v. and vi., 
June 1887 ; pts. vii. and viii., May 1888 ; pts. ix. and x., 
March 1889; pts. xi. and xii., December 1889; pts. xiii. 
and XIV., December 1890 ; pt, xv., August 1892 ; pts. xvi. 
and XVII., December 1893 ; and pts. xviii., xix. and xx., 
October 1894. 

Shaw. Director of Zoology at the British Museum. Wrote 
Mus. Leverianum, published in parts ; No. 1 presented to 
Ro3^ Soc, January 12, 1792 ; for details of which see Birds 
Austr., Vol. VII., pp. 466 and 476, 1919. 

Zool. Neiv Holland. See Emu, Vol. XI., pt. i., p. 255, 
April 1, 1912. 

Cimelia Physica, 1796. Miller's plates with text by Shaw. 

Naturalists' Miscellany. A most important scientific work 
of which 287 parts appeared between August 1, 1789, and 
August 1813, the date of Shaw's death. These are bound in 
twentj^-four volumes. For dates refer to Slierborn in the 
Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, Vol. XV., April 1895, p. 375, 
and J. A. Allen in the Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXXI., 
p. 11, March 4, 1912. Began a General Zoology, concluded 
by Stephens, which see. 

Shelley. Author of Birds of Africa, who wrote monograph 
of Cuckoos in Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. 

Sherborn. Compiler of the Index Animalium, the most 
important aid to the systematist yet published. A large 
number of notes in the present essay are due to liis initiative 
and assistance, and thanks are here once again tendered for 
his generosity in allowing me publication of some of his most 
interesting notes. 

Shufeldt. Famous American osteologist who has con- 
tributed papers on the Osteology of Australian Birds to the 
Emu, etc. 

Smith. Illus. Zool. South Africa. For details see Birds 


Austr., Vol. VII., p. 466, 1919, and Proc. Zool. Soc. (Loncl.), 
1880, p. 489. 

Sparrman. Mus. Carlson. Fasc. I., pis. i-xxv., 1786 ; 
fasc. II., pis. XXVI. -L., 1787; fasc. III., pis. li.-lxxv., 1788; and 
fasc. IV., pis. Lxxvi.-c, 1789. 

South Australian Ornithologist. See Birds Austr., 
Vol. VII., p. 467, 1919. 

Stejneger. Famous American ornithologist wlio, with 
Barrows, Elliot and the editor Kingsley, wrote up the Birds, 
Vol. IV., of the Standard Natural History 1885, wherein 
Stejneger proposed a very valuable and novel bird classi- 
fication. Issued late in 1885, refers to April in tent. 

Stephens. Continued the General Zoology after Shaw's 

Vol. IX. in two parts was published August 1816 

X. ,, ,, September 1817 

August 1819 
Late in 1824 
Feb. 18th, 1826 
Late in 1826; 





(Acknowledged) Linn. Soc, February 6, 1827 
Stone, Wither. Famous American ornithologist who con- 
tributed to the Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., pp. 5-62, 
April 17, 1899, a study of type specimens in the Philadelphia 
collection dealing with those of Peale and Cassin. He com- 
pleted his task with a list of Gould's Australian Birds in the 
Austral Av. Rec, Vol. I., pts. 6 and 7, February 28, 1913, 
an invaluable assistance to systematic ornithologists. 

Strickland. Editor of Nomenclatural Rules, commonly 
known as the Stricklandian Code. Accidentally killed. 
Under the title Ornithological Synonyms a portion of his 
MS. dealing with the synonymy of the Hawks and Owls was 
published in 1855 under the editorship of Mrs. Strickland and 
Sir W. Jardine, the preface being dated September 1, 1855. 
Nearly thirty years later a Catalogue of the Strickland Collection 
of Birds was published, edited by 0. Salvin, an inset being 
dated June 4, 1882, so that it must have appeared after that 
date. During his lifetime probably his most important 


publications were his criticisms of Gray's Lists of Genera of 
Birds which appeared in the Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., VI., p. 
410, 1840 ; VIL, p. 26, 1841, 159, 1841. 

SuNDEVALL. Tentavien. Parti. Introd., pp. i.-XLVin., and 
1-72, issued August 1872. Part ii. Introd., pp. xlix. to end, 
and pp. 73 to end before June 12th, 1873. An English trans- 
lation by F. Nicholson issued in 1889 (preface August 1). 

SwAiNSON Fauna Boreal. Americani. Vol. II., title page 
1831, but date of issue, according to Richmond, February 1832. 

Classif. Birds. Pt.i., October 1, 1836; pt. ii.,July 1, 1837. 

Birds of West Africa. Vol. I., March 8, 1837 ; Vol. IL, 
September 23, 1837. 

Anim. in Menag. December 31, 1837. 

Family Flycatchers (in Naturalists' Library). May 19, 1838. 

Zoological Illustrations. As far as has been ascertained by 
C. Davies Sherborn, the following are the particulars of issue 
of this complex work. The first part of the first series appeared 
on October 1, 1820, with 6 plates and this was succeeded monthly 
with similar parts for eleven months, the twelfth part having 
no plates but only preface, indices, etc., the preface to Vol. I. 
being dated September 15, 1821. The second Volume had 
only four plates to a part, but came out regularly, but apparently 
five plates were issued with the September 1821 number, 
which are included in this volume. Then the third Volume, 
begun in October 1822, had five plates to each number except 
the last in October 1823, which apparently had only three 
plates, title, prefaces, etc. 

The second series was much more erratic in appearance, 
and the data are very incomplete ; it was announced to 
begin on February 29, 1829, and five plates to a part ; 
three parts were reviewed as early as April 1829, but 
only six seem to have been published during 1829, being 
reviewed in February 1830. Again only four parts, three 
with five plates each, and one with indices, etc., can be 
traced as coming out in 1830. Then regularly for the first 
eight months in 1831, though double numbers may have been 
issued if behindhand. Then a period elapsed about which 
we know very little, and then the preface to the final volume 


(III.) is dated March 4, 1833, and this inc hides 40 plates, or 
eight parts each with five plates. 

TcHiHATCHEFF. Voy . Sci. d' Altai Or. Pt. i., acknowledged 
B.F., September 21, 1841 ; pt. ii., containing a catalogue 
of Birds by Brandt with new generic names in it, B.F., 
May 3, 1845. 

Temminck & Laugier, Planch. Color. d'Ois. See Birds 
Austr., Vol. VII., p. 468 and 477. I can now add that there 
is a postscript dated August 30, 1836, which reads, " In 
completing this 101st livraison." 

Temminck & Schlegel. The Aves in Siebold's Fauna 
Japonica were written up by these authors. This appeared in 
twelve parts as recorded by Sherborn in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 
(Lond.), 1895, p. 149. Additional dates are pt. iii., August 
1847; pt. IV., January 1848; pt. v., March 1848; pt. xii., 
April 1850. 

Temminck, C. J. Cat. Syst. Cab. Ornith., 1807. 

Manuel. 1st edition 1815, preface dated 1814. Dr. J. 
Dwight, New York, has a cop}/^ with two title pages, one 
" 1814," the other " 1815." 

Manuel. 2nd edition. Vols. I. and II. acknowledged 
B.F. October 21, 1820. Vol. III., April 18, 1835, and Vol. IV., 
December 7, 1839. Title pages of Vol. I. sometimes October 
1820, and Vol. III., April 1835, but others simply 1820-1840. 
There seems to have been a re-issue of Vols. III. and IV., and 
these are again recorded in the B.F. for December 19, 1840. 

In the text, p. 2, to Eurylaimus in the 22nd livraison of the 
Planch. Color, which appeared in May 1822, Temminck, in a 
footnote, stated that the third volume should appear in the 
beginning of 1823, and would include a second edition of his 
Analyse. The third volume as above was delayed until 1835, 
and I have never heard of the publication of the second edition 
of the Analyse. 

Les Pigeons, by Knip, " dated on title page 1811, appeared 
in 15 livraisons, from 1807 to 1811." Research by Sherborn 
has revealed the following confirming Coues' data, Orn. Bibl., 
pt. 3, pp. 794-797 (Bull. U.S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Territ., 
No. 4 (September 30), 1880), to which reference should be 


made. As far as is known no livraison appeared earlier than 
1809 in which year five were issued, covering Les Colombars, 
,pls. i.-xi., pp. 23-41, and Les Colombes, pis. i.-xviii., pp. 1-49. 
In 1810 three livraisons with pis. xix.-xxxvi. and correspond- 
ing text with the succeeding plates of Les Colombes xxxvii.-lix. 
and Les Colombi-gallines, pis. i.-xvi. and pp. 1-30 all in 1811. 
In tlie copy in the Tweeddale Library, Natural History Depart- 
ment of the British Museum, pp. 23-41 as given above appear, 
but the signatures are erratic, 7, 8, 9, 33, 24, but in my own 
copy they were 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. In the Zoological Library 
in the same place a copy contains pp. 23-28 only, but there 
is a 2nd edition with pp. 23-34 — 129-135, and these latter 
are the pages correctly numbered, 35-41 in the Tweeddale 
copy and have the same signatures 33-24. This amplifies 
the history of the elimination of certain pages, etc., by Madame 
Knip as detailed by Coues, and the numeration of those pages 
129-135 follows that of Les Colombes, which runs from 1-128, 
and suggests they came out at the end of that group in error. 
Trans: Linn. Soc. (Lond.). Dates are given in the Birds 
Austr., Vol. VII., pp. 471, 477, 1919. The one that concerns 
Austrahan ornithologists intimately is that of Vol. XV., 
pt. I., which contains Vigors and Horsfield's historic essay, 
and which jDroves to have been issued on February 17, 1827, 
though until quite recently quoted as 1826. 

Vol. I. Pres. Roy. Soc. Nov. 24, 1791 

IV. „ „ „ May 24, 1798 

V. „ ,, „ Feb. 20, 1800 

VI. „ „ „ June 5, 1802 

XII. pt. 2 about July, 1819. 

[Tunstall]. Ornith. Britannica, dated 1771. Published 
anonymously, yet commonly accepted by workers who pretend 
to reject anonymous works. 

United States Exploring Expedition. The results of 
this Expedition under Wilkes were pubhshed, and the birds 
reported upon by Titian Peale, the artist of the expedition, 
whose work was published in 1848. After a few copies were 
distributed in a legitimate manner the stock was accidentally 


destroyed by fire. A second edition was prepared by John 
Cassin, a professed ornithologist, who rejected most of Peale's 
names as synonyms, though they have since been recognised. 
The preface is dated May 10, 1858. 

ViEiLLOT. Analyse nouv. Ornith., acknowledged B.F. April 
14, 1816. Author of monographs in Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. 
Nat., nouv. ed., Ency. Method., Galerie des Oiseaux, which 

Vigors. Editor of Zool. Journal. Co-author with Horsfield 
of Essa}^ on Australian birds which appeared in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. (Lond.), Vol. XV., pt. ii. 

Vroeg. a well-known name since first attention was 
drawn to it by Slierborn and Richmond in the Smithsonian 
Miscell. Coll. (Quarterly Issue), Vol. 47, January 31, 1905, 
pp. 332-347. Papers have been written by Hartert, Van 
Oort, Witmer Stone and myself, and the last word has rot 
yet been said. The sale of the collection was to be September 
22, 1764, so that the pamphlet must have been published 
before that date. The Latin Adumhratiuncuki was pre- 
pared by Pallas, from external evidence; but the author is 
anonymous, while the text of the Catalogue may be credited 
to Vroeg. Two years after Vroeg's Cat. was published, 
Linne (Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 298, 1766) quotes Turdus 
puniceus Pallas, adumbr. 99. (This is No 99, p. 2, Vroeg's 
Cat., 1764). 

Pallas, Zoogr., Vol. II., p. 199, 1827, says he described 
Try7iga alba in Catal. Vroegiani append, adumbr. and this 
is No. 320, p. 7, in Vroeg's Cat. 

W^AGLER. Syst. Avium was reviewed in Isis, October 1827, 
col. 864. The monograph of Parrots appeared in the Abhandl. 
Ak. Wissen. Munchen, Vol. I., 1832, whose preface is dated 
December 1832, and separates are dated 1835. 

Waterhouse. Index Generum Avium. Preface dated 
August 1, 1889. A valuable list, but no accuracy as regards 
dates of publication. Waterhouse's work must be supple- 
mented by Richmond's, which see. 

White. Journ. Voy. N.S.W. Title 1790, latest date on 
plates December 29, 1789. Reviewed in Gent's. Mag. for 


August 1790, but this may even refer to second print, for 
wliich see Birds Austr., Vol. VII., p. 472, 1919. 

Wilson. Illus. Zool. In nine parts, 1827-1831. Pref. 
April 25, 1827. Pt. i. reviewed April-July No. ; pt. 2 July- 
September No. ; pt. 3 January-March, 1828, No. of Edinb. 
Philos. Journ. Four parts only by June 1828 ; the seventh 
before November 1829, and 8th and 9th before May 1831. 
No. 6, 1829, includes Larus jamesoni. 

Zool. Journ. First two volumes issued in parts according 
to titles, last three more or less erratically, the last part 
Decembers, 1835, the preceding one in July 1832. See Birds 
Austr., Vol. VIL, p. 473, 1919.* 

Zool. Miscellany. See Leach and Gray. 


Austral Avian Record 

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Vol IV., Nos. 2 and 3- July 28th, 1920. 

Avian Taxonomy . . 

A Name-List of the Birds of New Zealand 

A Name-List of the Birds op Australia . . 



By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 

Recent taxonomists have failed to provide a scheme to meet 
with any general approval, the best known being far from 
faultless. American ornithologists have deferred the con- 
sideration of the higher avian systematics on the grounds of 
convenience — a plea unexpected from progressives, but one 
continually urged by conservative ornithologists. 

It has always seemed to us that a knowledge of the 
relationships of the higher groups is of much more importance 
than the study of geographical variations of species. It is 
admitted that much more careful study is necessary in connec- 
tion with the former than with the latter, but in our opinion 
the difficulties only make the subject more interesting. A 
comphcation has been present in the pecuhar usurpation of 
recent taxonomies by individuals ignorant of avian forms. 
We have been quite unable to appreciate the reasons for 
acquiescence in the unmerited dogmatism of such writers, 
whose inabihty to understand avian evolution has been 
disguised by the usage of barbaric terms. 

Really only three taxonomists have dealt with bird 
classification in a scientific manner, viz., Stejneger, Sharpe 


and Shufeldt, and these were more or less confused by the 
pecuHarities proposed by their predecessors, and could not 
deal clearly with the matters in view. Each, however, endea- 
voured to improve the subject, and, as a matter of fact, the 
classification suggested by the last named is worthy of much 
consideration. The present essay is an attempt to deal 
broadly with the subject from the knowledge of the birds 
themselves, due consideration being given to the anatomy 
and osteology, but without deference to the views of incom- 
petent writers, some of whom without reason have endeavoured 
to dominate avian taxonomy. 

As Sharpe pointed out, it is impossible adequately to express 
a scheme of avian classification in linear sequence. We agree 
to this, and consequently the most difficult task is to arrange 
the forms without too much disagreement. Since Sharpe's 
Review of recent attempts to classify Birds, schemes by Gadow, 
Beddard, Shufeldt, Reichenow and Sharpe himself have 
been published, and, as Shufeldt remarked when he pubhshed 
his own, the differences are extraordinary. Shufeldt laid 
down laws which are worthy of repetition, and which we have 
always maintained, thus : "In our efEorts, too, to seek out 
the true relationship of birds in order to arrive at a natural 
classification we must take into consideration, in the broadest 
possible sense, their embryology, their oology and nidology ; 
their habits and comparative longevity, and even their various 
notes and songs must be given due weight . . . indeed ptilosis, 
pterylography and osteology stand among the most important 
factors at our command. . . . Their geographical distribution, 
a very important factor to be studied in their taxonomy, is to 
be considered not only from the view-point of the present 
distribution of the species of the class over the earth's surface, 
but likewise a comprehension, as far as possible, of the question 
as to how that distribution came about. . . It is extremely 
unsafe and dangerous to the science of this subject, however, 
to thus employ the osseous system alone. ... A comparative 
study of the beaks and feet ; the various characters presented 
on the parts of the plumage, especially as to colour, structure 
and style, often constitute admirable checks on a classificatory 


scheme of the class based on osteological data." Such con- 
clusions acLieved by a professional osteologist are extremely 
valuable, and justify the proposition of a scheme formulated 
from a study of the factors suggested by Shufeldt, and con- 
firmed by anatomical and osteological data. Regarding these 
latter, it is worthy of emphasis that Beddard concluded that 
very little reliance could be placed upon any internal features 
on account of the variation, and that, accurately speaking, 
there were no characters upon which special stress could be 
laid with any security. 

Probably the most scathing condemnation of the worker 
who is responsible for so much coirfusion in bird classification 
proceeded from one of his mentors: "Common sense revolts 
at the acceptance of any scheme which involves so many 
incongruities" ; and again : " This view was virtually aban- 
doned by him (the author of these incongruous ideas) within 
little more than twelve months ; but that fact has not hindered 
some writers from continuing to use these terms as if they 
had any taxonomic signification." 

We had written before seeing that note : " It is displeasing 
to record that avian systematists have continued the accept- 
ance without criticism of the incongruous items, many of 
which were almost immediately abandoned by their introducer." 

Why avian systematics should be considered incapable of 
comprehension by the normal student we are unable to under- 
stand. It is admitted that the morphology of birds must be 
considered in connection with their classification, but we want 
to emphasise the fact that it is absolutely impossible to frame 
a scheme upon morphological characters alone, and that only 
a full consideration of superficial features complemented by 
anatomical details will prove successful. There is as much, 
or even more, convergence in the latter as in the former. The 
serious student will note that only in the cases which have 
puzzled him has anatomy been successful in assistance, but 
when the puzzle was very complete anatomy has failed just 
as absolutely. Ornithologists have as much vahd material to 
deal with as ornithotomists. Thus the division of birds into 
CariyiatcB and Ratitce is indefensible, from any point of view, 


while Neognathce and Palwognathce are just as futile terms. 
Consideration of the living forms has led us to accept three 
divisions, viz., Dromceornithes, Impennes and Euornithes, as 
being a reasonable compromise, though we anticipate the 
absolute rejection of the first named and their dispersal among 
the Euornithes at a later stage ; but we cannot see where the 
Impennes can be placed with any degree of satisfaction, as 
they differ in toto from all other existing birds. 

Before proceeding further we must state that we are 
omitting from this classification the fossil forms, as we are 
quite unable to place them with any degree of accuracy in 
connection with living species. V^e absolutely disagree with 
those who would not study them at all in conjunction with 
recent forms, but we cannot see enough data to determine 
any near relationships. Probably each fossil represents an 
order, as these are used to-day, while the characters of such 
fossils as are well known are least useful. We recognise that 
an Avian " Order " is a group of little value in comparison 
with a Mammalian or Reptihan " Order," but the elimination 
of order and supersession by supersuborder does not attract 
us. Neither does suborder and superfamily avail us much if 
these be used in the same manner. We here propose a series 
of Orders, few in number, but divided into many suborders 
(these being what have been sometimes termed Orders) and 
in a few cases superfamilies are noted. As a matter of fact 
to the speciahst the more divisions the easier the work, and 
the more exact the application thereof. 

Thus in the subclass Dromseornithes the generally ranked 
Orders Struthiones, Rhese and Casuarii are retained by us, the 
last named being divided into two famihes, the Casuariidse 
and Dromiceiidse. 

The subclass Impennes covers one Order, Sphenisci, 
which may be divided into two famihes, the Spheniscidse and 
Aptenodytidse. We regard this series as ranging from 
Eudyptula through Spheniscus in one direction and by means 
of Eudyptes into Megadyptes in the other. In the other family 
we place Pygoscelis below Aptenodytes, and in so doing find we 
are in agreement with both ornithotomists and ornithologists. 


We have instanced this case in detail, but do not propose to 
go into such in connection with the succeeding orders. 

In the Euornithes we begin with the Procellarii or Tubinares 
and admit only one suborder, Procellariiformes, divisible into 
four famihes, Thalassidromidse, Procellariidge, Pelecanoididge 
and Diomedeidge. It would be a good system to amalgamate 
the three first named into a superfamily, Procellarioidea, and 
contrast the latter as a superfamily, Diomedeoidea. The 
latter better represents the value of the divisions, as we 
cannot yet give them subordinal distinction. 

As a distinct Order we must separate the Fregati, and 
we place these next, as they show structural characters 
recalling those of the previous family, and, moreover, 
these are confirmed by internal features, and all investigators 
are agreed as to the anomalous position these held when 
included in the Steganopodes. We restrict the latter to those 
members left when the Fregati and Phaethonti are removed ; 
and, admitting that only one suborder is necessary, would 
still differentiate the groups as being above family rank, and 
therefore recognise three superfamilies, Phalacrocoracoidea, 
Pelecanoidea and Suloidea. Two families are included in the 
first named, the Phalacrocoracidse and Anhingidse, while the 
others cover but one each. 

The Order now following, the Lari or Limicolse, is an amal- 
gamation of several suborders, Phaethontiformes, Lariformes, 
Alciformes, Colymbiformes, Chionidiformes, Charadriiformes 
and Otidiformes. The first named is, according to our judg- 
ment, more closely related to the Lariformes and seems a 
derivative from the ancestors of the Sternidse series. On 
account of its " steganopod " character we place it at the foot 
of the Lariform group, succeeding with the Lariformes s. str.^ 
with their usual four famihes, Sternidge, Rynchopidse, Laridse 
and Stercorariidse. The difficulty of arrangement is felt 
throughout the whole of this series as we trace the evolution 
of many groups in different directions ; as here we can foUow 
the Sternidse into the Rynchopidse, which must be recognised 
as highly specialised, yet from their pecuhar distribution, a 
very old form. Again, from their structure, the Stercorariidse 


must have departed early from the Larine stem, but since 
then peculiar forms have developed, while the extraordinary 
Arctic-Antarctic distribution, agreeing with other Lariform 
groups, is not otherwise met with. 

The Alciformes naturally follow the Lariformes, but hitherto 
the Colymbiformes have not been added, though a few taxono- 
mists have noted their Alciform relationship. There can be 
little argument as to the reality of this alliance, but the 
Podicipes have no place here. There seems no real reason 
for the common association of the Colymbi and Podicipes, 
their morphology denying any near phylogenetic relation. 
To follow the Colymbiformes we place the anomalous Chionidi- 
formes, including therein the Dromadidse and Chionididse. 
Their Lari-Charadriiform character is fully proved by the 
osteological and other features, which have been so fully 
described recently. 

The suborder Charadriiformes we have divided into six 
superfamilies, the first being the Burhinoidea, for the family 
Burhinidse alone. This group recalls in many ways the 
Lariform series, while it differs morphologically from the 
Charadriiform s. str. series though not to such a degree as 
some workers decide, the differential features being exag- 
gerated and misunderstood. 

The superfamily Scolopacoidea covers three families, Scolo- 
pacidse, Phalaropidse and Recurvirostridse. The first named 
is certainly divisible into subfamilies, probably more than 
three in number, and their interrelation is not yet determined. 
The Phalaropidse seem to us to have developed independently 
from three Scolopacoid forms, while the Recurvirostridse just 
as surely appear to have arisen from the same basis through 
specialisation in another manner. Arriving at the superfamily 
Charadrioidea, we admit four families, Hsematopodidse, 
Arenariidse, Charadriidse and Vanelhdse. The two first 
families consist of small isolated groups, not very closely 
related to each other or to the succeeding famity, the Chara- 
driidse, which includes the bulk of the superfamily. More 
than one subfamily will be recognised later in the Charadriidse, 
and from one section we can trace the Vanellidse, which is 


one of the best marked families of birds. Osteologically, the 
members of the latter show a nearer approach to the Lariform 
series than to their nearer allies in this system. By specialisa- 
tion in two very opposite directions from the Vanelloid root 
the superfamilies Jacanoidea and Glareoloidea have evolved, 
and these complete the recent Charadriiformes. We include 
as the last suborder the Otidiformes, but some systematists 
have concluded these would be better placed in the Gruiform 
assemblage. This is an item which requires great judgment, 
and in this essay we follow immediately with the Order Psophii 
or Grues, so that its location is agreeable to either view. 

The Order Psophii is subdivided into three suborders, 
Cariamiformes, Psophiiformes and Eurypygiformes, an asso- 
ciation which is probably the least natural of all the group- 
ings utihsed. This is a good example of the failure of the 
ornithotomist to supply any solution when the superficial 
student desires assistance. Probably a much more natural 
sequence will be provided by a more thorough study of the 
superficies of the birds, using the term in its widest sense. 

As an order we admit Ralli, comprising three suborders, 
Ralliformes, Heliornithiformes and Podicipiformes. The 
Ralline character of the last named is evident from the fact 
that ornithotomists have declared a difficulty in distinguishing 
the skeletal features as regards the skulls of the smaller species. 
As many morphological workers have combined the Grues 
and RalU into one group, our classification cannot be much 
discussed, the association here allowed differing very little from 
most other results — the introduction of the Podicipiformes, 
which we have separated entirely from the Colymbiformes, 
being the only novel item. We follow with the Order 
Apteryges,a very distinct group which we consider is certainly 
of Ralline affinity, and cannot be placed near the " Ratitse " 
for any reason. A consideration of their morphology denies 
any "Ratite" relationship, while admitting the heterogeneous 
nature of that group. The Order Tinami succeeds, leading 
to the Galli, the Tinami showing to us undoubted Galline 
and Ralline relations, no " Ratite " jalliance being indicated. 
As members of the Order Galli we indicate five suborders. 


Opisthocomiformes, Craciformes, Galliformes, Turniciformes 
and Attagidiformes. Here, again, morphological study has 
complicated the classification through the incompetence of 
the workers to comprehend osteological and anatomical varia- 
tion. Thus OpistJiocomus is purely an old associate of the 
Craciformes, and in any scheme whatever it must be placed 
alongside. Similarly, the Turniciformes and Attagidiformes 
are near relations of the Galliformes, having developed a little 
in different directions, but certainly neither have the former 
any close Ralline affinity nor the latter a Charadriine relationship. 
To place the Attagidiformes with the Chionidiformes among 
the Lari is a peculiarly unscientific proceeding, and every 
morphological item denies this association. The suborder 
Galliformes we have separated into two subfamilies, the 
Megapodioidea and the Phasianoidea, the former with one 
family only, the latter divisible into six families. Between 
the Galli and the Columbse as usual appear the Syrrhaptes, and 
the Columbse include the Columbiformes and Raphiformes. 
At this point there is a hiatus just as in every other system, 
and we have been unable to bridge it, as next come the 
Anates, which covers the Anatiformes and the Anhimiformes, 
a combination which has been accepted for over fifty years 
without question ; but still it may not be incontrovertible. 

The Phcenicopteri must be regarded as of ordinal value, as 
they combine a generalised Anatine form with many features 
of Ardeine affinity. They constitute one of the best marked 
groups, superficially and internally, and their relegation to 
any other group in a subordinate degree would imply complete 
ignorance of avian evolution. Their fossil remains confirm 
their early divergence from the forms named. The next order, 
Herodiones, has given trouble on account of the generalised 
nature of the few species, and though we have simply recognised 
six families, these have been given various rank up to ordinal, 
and the chief trouble is that we know too much about their 
morphology, and the characters vary in each form, so that 
" preconceived ideas " as to the value of the items have been 
destroyed. The succeeding order, Falcones, is a more trouble- 
some one still, as here again specialisation has taken place on 


similar lines, and superficial likenesses are supposed to cover 
divergent morphological structures. So far, anatomists have 
been quite unable to determine the relationships of the groups, 
and all classications are debatable. We admit two suborders, 
Vulturiformes and Falconiformes, the latter divisible into two 
superfamilies, Sagittarioidea and Falconoidea. Seven famiUes 
comprise the latter, but probably three divisions are here 
represented. The relationship of the Striges to the Falcones 
has been much disputed by the morphologist, who would 
interpose the Psittaci, but as he would also amalgamate the 
Cuculi with the Psittaci, we are not accepting that scheme. 
We therefore add the Order Striges after the Falcones, admit- 
ting the three families, Strigidse, Phodihdse and Tytonidse, and 
then come to the Order Psittaci. This order is in a similar 
state to the Falcones, all the forms entering one suborder with 
six superfamilies, Strigopoidea,Psittacoidea, etc.; the suborder 
being represented by sixteen families. As a separate order 
we recognise the Cuculi, two superfamilies being admitted, 
the true Cuculoidea covering four families, Cucuhdse, Eudy- 
namytidse, Scythropidse and Polophihdse. It is probable that 
other famihes can be distinguished, as these are well marked 
and just as easily characterised morphologically as they can 
be superficially determined. 

The disposition of the " Coraciine " birds is a problem which 
dismays every taxonomist, though the sequence of the groups 
is not much disputed. The value of the observed differences, 
internal as well as external, cannot be correctly estimated in 
terms of the preceding groupings. The Pico-Passeriformes 
are together scarcely equal in value to one of the preceding 
orders, but the number of species demands detailed segregation, 
and we have no names for the groups to be distinguished. 
Consequently we now appreciate a family to the equivalent 
of an order, and the subdivisions are termed with the same 
names downwards, but it must be borne in mind that these 
are not equivalent. Remembering this all the time, we can 
divide the " Pico-Passerines " into seven " orders." The 
Coracise comprises three superfamilies, the Podargoidea, 
Coracioidea and Cohoidea ; the former contains three famihes, 


the Steatornithidae, Podargidse and ^Egothelidse. The next 
order, the Haley ones, is divided into six superfamiUes, Mero- 
poidea, Todoidea, Momotoidea, Alcedinoidea, Bucerotoidea 
and Upupoidea, the last named and the Alcedinoidea having 
two families, and the remaining with only one. The order 
Pici includes four superfamilies, Bucconoidea, Ramphastoidea, 
Capitonoidea and Picoidea. As a separate order we allow the 
Trogoni, while into the order Macrochires three suborders, 
Caprimulgiformes, Micropodiformes and Trochiliformes are 
amalgamated. We are inclined to agree that the last named 
are not accurately located, but are unable to provide a better 
disposition at present. 

The order Menurse here intervenes, and this we are convinced 
is not its proper place, and would indicate this location as one 
of the ornithotomists' worst blunders. We hope to amend 
this particular error at some later period. 

The last order, Passeres, is the most compact, but neverthe- 
less the most numerous in species, and consequently desiring 
the most subdivision. As pointed out above, this " order " 
is practically the equivalent of a family, as that degree is 
used, until we arrive at this complex, and that is the value 
given it by ornithotomists attempting logically to subdivide 
the Aves into groups of equal value. 

In deference to the ornithotomists six superfamilies are 
admitted, Eurylsemoidea, Cotingoidea, Formicarioidea, Pitt- 
oidea, Atrichornithoidea and Passer oidea, but a more arti- 
ficial and unnatural grouping could not have been devised 
by any ornithologist, as the basis of these superfamilies is 
unsound. The association of a series of dissimilar birds on 
account of the degradation of a single internal organ, espe- 
cially as it is accompanied by geographical circumscription, 
is just as unscientific as the conjunction of species, having 
discontinuous range and distinctly different facies, also for 
reason of one disused internal feature. 

The superfamily Passeroidea has always been productive of 
subdivision and the chief tendency at present is to separate 
further. Without attempting to rectify or add much at this 
time, we total nearly sixty families. It is very difficult to re- 


group these into a less number, though this is necessary, and 
we conclude that only by means of utilising coloration can this 
succeed. Again, coloration cannot be considered without study 
of plumage changes, and recognition of variation in connection 
with the evolution of coloration in different groups. This has 
already been suggested in connection with the Turdidse, but 
only in a preliminary and vague manner. The pterylosis and 
development of the feathering in the nestling of Passerines 
must be studied, especial attention being given to convergence. 
It is possible that by this means we could determine a more 
or less acceptable linear sequence, which at present is non- 
existent. Thus, the sequence given hereafter is based upon 
the fact that the Corvidse represent the highest degree, a very 
debatable item. It may be suggested here that there can be 
no family deserving of such distinction, as several families may 
have developed equally, as in other groups, in different manners, 
each of which would be equally representative of a high state 
of development. Thus, one factor that has been put forward 
is the uniform coloration of nestling and adult of both sexes ; 
this can be seen evolving in one family alone, in which the 
nestling to the male shows four plumage changes in one 
species, and in another the intervening changes have lapsed 
and the nestling takes on that of the adult almost in the first 
plumage. Similarly, species with booted tarsi in the adult 
show a scutellate acrotarsium in the nestling, and so forth. 

In the preparation of this scheme we have provided our own 
conclusions without deference to any previous authorities. 
Upon completion we contrasted it in detail with the better 
known propositions and have been surprised to see that the 
bulk of the groups coincide, and consequently very little 
objection can be made to the majority. 

As to the fossil forms, we have not attempted to incorporate 
these in this system, as the majority of them cannot be deter- 
mined, and it is probable that most should be classed on a 
distinct plane, as has been already suggested. To quote even 
their names and the location suggested by systematists would 
occupy a lot of space without much benefit. It will be noted 
that in this prehminary survey we have not introduced a mass 


of technical terms relative to the morphology, the majority 
of which are httle understood even by the speciaUst, and 
the comparative value of the ones utilised has never been 

To diagnose groups by means of such variable items as the 
muscle formula, the presence or absence of basi-pterygoid 
processes, the oil gland and the nature of the syrinx implies 
the absence of any " deep-seated " characters, at least of any 
stabihty. It is not our intention to disparage morphological 
items, but to assert that such are not yet sufficiently under- 
stood to be relied upon for the differentiation of groups, except 
in a confirmatory manner. The external features, especially 
the growth stages, must be fully appraised, and in doubtful 
cases reference made to anatomical features. 

As above noted, this is our first attempt at providing a work- 
able classification of avine forms, and we hope that later we 
may, utilising this as a basis, prepare a diagnostic complement, 
as such is non-existent at the present time, and we have 
been compelled to refer to much scattered (and contradictory) 
literature, while little has been done in many directions. 

Class AVES 

Subclass Dromaeornithes 
Order Struthiones 

Suborder Struthioniformes 

Family Struthionidse 
Order Rhese 

Suborder Rheiformes 

Family Rheidse 
Order Casuarii 

Suborder Casuariiformes 

Family Dromiceiidse 

Subclass Impennes 
Order Sphenisci 

Suborder Sphenisciformes 

Family Spheniscidse 


Subclass Euornithes 
Order Procellarise or Tubinares 
Suborder Procellariiformes 

Superfamily Procellarioidea 
Family Tlialassidromidse 
Superfamily Diomedeoidea 
Family Diomedeidse 
Order Fregati 

Suborder Fregatiformes 

Family Fregatidse 
Order Pelecani or Steganopodes 
Suborder Pelecanifonnes 

Superfamily Phalacrocoracoidea 
Family Phalacrocoracidae 

Anhingidse (=Plotid8e olim) 
Superfamily Pelecanoidea 

Family Pelecanidse 
Superfamily Suloidea 
Family Sulidae 
Order Lari or Limicolse 

Suborder Phaethontiformes 

Family Pliae hontidse 
Suborder Lariformes 

Family Steriiidse 

Suborder Alciformes 

Family Alcidse 
Suborder Colymbiformes 

Family Colymbidse 
Suborder Chioiiidifomies 

Family Dromadidse 
Suborder Charadriiformes 

Superfamily Burhinoidea 

Family Burhinidse ( = (Edicnemidse oUm) 


Superfamily Scolopacoidea 
Family Rostratulidse 
Superfamily Cliaradrioidea 
Family Haematopodidse 
Superfamily Jacanoidea 

Family Jacaiiidse ( = Parrid8e olim) 
Superfamily Glareoloidea 
Family Glareolidse 
Suborder Otidiformes 

Family Otidida^ 
Order Psopliii or Grues 

Suborder Cariamiformes 

Family Cariamidse 
Suborder Psopliiifomies 

Family Psopliiidse 

Balearicidse (^Gruidse olim) 
Suborder Eurypygiformes 

Superfamily Eurypygoidea 

Family Eurypygidse 
Superfamily Rhinochetoidea 

Family Rhinoclietidse 
Superfamily Mesitoidea 
Family Mesitidce 
Order Ralli 

Suborder RalKformes 

Family Rallidse 

Suborder Heliornithiformes 

Family Heliornithidse 
Suborder Podicipiformes 

Family Podicipidse 


Order Apteryges 

Suborder Apterygifomies 

Family Apterygidse 
Order Tinami 

Suborder Tinamiformes 

Family Tinamidse 
Order Galli 

Suborder Opisthocomiformes 

Family Opisthocomidse 
Suborder Craciformes 

Family Cracidse 
Suborder Galliformes 

Superfamily Megapodioidea 

Family Megapodiidse 
Superfamily Phasianoidea 
Family Meleagrididae 
Suborder Turniciformes 

Family Turnicidse 

Suborder Attagidiformes 
Family Attagidse 

Order Syrrhaptes 

Suborder Syrrhaptiformes 

Family Syrrhaptidae 
Order Columbae 

Suborder Columbiformes 

Family Columbidse 

Turturidse (=Peristeridse oUm) 






Suborder Raphiformes 

Family Rapliidse 
Order Anates or Chenomorphge 
Suborder Anatiformes 

Family Cereopsidse 

Suborder Anhimiformes 

Family Anhimidse (=Palamedeid8e olim) 
Order Plioenicopteri or Ampliimorplise 
Suborder Phcenicopteriformes 

Family PhcEnicopteridse 
Order Herodiones 

Suborder Ardeiformes 

Family Ardeidse 
Plegadidge (=Ibidid8e olim) 
Order Falcones 

Suborder Vulturiformes 

Family Vulturidse ( = Cathartidae olim) 
Suborder Falconiformes 

Superfamily Sagittarioidea 

Family Sagittariidse (==Serpentariid8e olim) 
Superfamily Falconoidea 
Family Polyboridse 


iEgypiidse (=Vulturid8e olim) 

Aquilidse (=Buteonid8e olim) 
Order Striges 

Suborder Strigiformes 

Family Strigidse (=Bubonid8e olim) 


Family Phodilidse 

Tytonidee (=Strigid8e olim) 
Order Psittaci 

Suborder Psittaciformes 

Superfamily Strigopoidea 

Family Strigopidse 
Superfamily Psittaculoidea 
Famih?^ Pezoporidae 

PsittaculidsG ( =Pal8eornithid9e olim) 
Superfamily Psittacoidea 
Family Psittacidae 
Superfamily Aroidea 

Family Aridse 
Superfamily Kakatoeoidea 
Family Kakatoeidse 

Superfamily Trichoglossoidea 
Family Nasiternidse 
Order Cuculi 

Suborder Cuculiformes 

Superfamily Cuculoidea 
Family Cuculidse 

Superfamily Musophagoidea 
Family Musophagidse 
Order Coracise 

Suborder Coraciiformes 

Superfamily Podargoidea 


Family Steatornithidse 
Superfamily Coracioidea 
Family Coraciidse 

Superfamily Colioidea 
Family Coliidse 

Order Halcyones 

Suborder Alcediniformes 

Superfamily Meropoidea 

Family Meropidse 
Superfamily Todoidea 

Family Todidse 
Superfamily Momotoidea 

Family Momotidse 
Superfamily Alcedinoidea 
Family Alcedinidse 
Superfamily Bucerotoidea 

Family Bucerotidse 
Superfamily Upupoidea 
Family Upupidse 

Phoeniculidae =Irrisorid8e olim . 
Order Pici 

Suborder Piciformes 

Superfamily Bucconoidea 
Family Bucconidse 
Superfamily Ramphastoidea 

Family Rampliastidse 
Superfamily Capitonoidea 
Family Capitonidse 
Superfamily Picoidea 
Family Picidse 


Order Trogoni 

Suborder Trogoniformes 

Family Trogonidse 
Order Macrochires 

Suborder Caprimulgiformes 

Family Caprimulgidse 
Suborder Micropodiformes 

Family Micropodidse 
Suborder Trochiliformes 

Family Trochilidfe 
Order Menurae 

Suborder Menuriformes 

Family Menuridse 
Order Passeres 


Superfamily Eurylsemoidea 

Family Eurylsemidse 
Superfamily Cotingoidea 
Family Cotingidge 

Superfamily Formicarioidea 
Family Formicariidas 
Dendroc olaptidse 
Superfamily Pittoidea 
Family Pittidse 





Superfamily Atrichornithoidea 
Family Atrichornitliidse 

Superfamily Passeroidea 

Family Hirundinidse, Muscicapidse, Campo- 
pliagidse, Sphecotheridse, Turnagridse, 
Pycnonotidse, Irenidse, Turdoididse, 
Orthonycidce ( = Timeliidse olim pt.), 
Bowdleriidae, Troglodytidse, Cinclidse, 
Mimidse, Zeledoniidse, Turdidse, Syhiida? 
(inc . Regulidse ) , Vireonidse, Ptilogonatidoe, 
Dulidse, Bombycillidae -- Ampelidee olim, 
Artamidse, Vangidse, Prionopidse, Aero- 
charidae, Cracticidse, Falcunculidse, Lani- 
idse, Tylidse, Paridse, Chamseidae, Spheno- 
stomidse, Sittidse, Certhiidse, Zosterop- 
idee, Pardalotidse, Dicseidse, Nectariniidge, 
Promeropidse, Meliphagidse, Mniotiltidae, 
( — Compsothlypidse Oberliolser) Drep- 
anidse, Motacillidae, Alaudidee, Catambly- 
rhynchidse, Friiigillidse, Coerebidse, 
Tersidse — Procniatidse olim, Tangaridee 
= Tanagridse olim, Ploceidse, Icteridse, 
Heteralochidse, Creadiontidae, Sturnidse, 
Graculidse = Enlabetidee olim, Paramy- 
thiidse, Buphagidse, Oriolidse, Dicruridse, 
Paradiseidse, Ptilonorliynchidas, Callsea- 
didse, Corvidse 



By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 

We provided in the Ibis for 1913 a Reference List, and in that 
List we rejected the Brissonian genera ; those genera have 
since been recognised as vahd by the International Commission 
on Zoological Nomenclature. We utilise them here, though 
pointing out that their recognition has recently been again 
questioned. In that List also the classification was arranged 
according to Sharpe's Hand List, and we now take the oppor- 
tunity of correcting the former effort, while rearranging the 
groups in accordance with our preceding essay. 

We have included all the visiting species, as there is a lot of 
work to be done in this connection, and place against those 
which have only occurred three times or less an asterisk to 
attract attention, but we have not starred any Petrels. 

We are preparing a Handbook, dealing systematically with 
all the species, and we will include details of the higher groups 
in plain language, accompanied by good figures elucidating the 
differential points. Upon calculation we find that 211 species 
names are included in the List, and of these no fewer tb an 
thirty-six have only occurred three times or less. In addition, 
a minority, but still an appreciable number, only breed on the 
subtropical and sub-antarctic outliers of the Dominion, while 
again only thirty-two Passeriform species are included, of 
which four are island forms. These figures are given simply 
to show the extraordinary lack of bird-life, which has for its 
only compensation the peculiar nature of the existing forms. 

Class AVES 

Subclass Impennes 

Order Sphenisci 

Suborder SjDhenisciformes 

Family Spheniscidge. Thick-billed Penguins 

Eudyptula minor (Forster 1781, Aptenodytes) 

Little Blue Penguin 
Eudyptula alhosignata Finsch, 1874 
Silver Penguin 


Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Gray 1845 

Victoria Penguin 
Eudyptes sclateri BuUer 1888 

Big-crested Penguin 
Eudyptes serresianus (Oustalet 1878, Eudyptula) 

Tufted Penguin 
Eudyptes schlegeli Finsch 1876 

Macaroni Penguin 
Megadyptes antipodes (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841, Catarrhactes) 

Yellow-crowned Penguin 
Family Aptenodytidse. Thin-billed Penguins 
Pygoscelis papua (Forster 1781, Aptenodytes) 

Aptenodytes patagonica Miller 1778 

King Penguin 

Subclass Euornithes 

Order Procellarise or Tubinares 
Suborder Procellariiformes 
Superfamily Procellarioidea 

Family Thalassidromid^. Storm-Petrels 
Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl 1820, Procellaria) 

Yellow-webbed Storm-Petrel 
Garrodia nereis (Gould 1841, Thalassidroma) 

Grey-backed Storm-Petrel 
Pealea lineata (Peale 1848, Thalassidroma) 

Samoan Storm-Petrel 
Pelagodroma marina (Latham 1790, Procellaria) 

White-faced Storm-Petrel 
Fregetta tropica (Gould 1844, Thalassidroma) 

Black-bellied Storm-Petrel 
Family Procellariidas. Shearwaters and Petrels 
Puffinus assirailis Gould 1838 

Allied Shearwater 
Reinholdia reinholdi (Mathews 1912, Puffinus) 

Brown-backed Shearwater 
Thyellodroma bulleri (Salvin 1888, Puffinus) 

Ashy-backed Shearwater 


Thyellodroma paci/ica (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Wedge- tailed Shearwater 
Neonectris griseus (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Sooty Shearwater or Mutton Bird 
Neonectris tenuirostris (Temm. & Laug. 1835, Procellaria) 

Short-tailed Shearwater 
Hemipuffinus carneipes (Gould 1844, Pufflnus) 

Fleshy-footed Shearwater 
Procellaria parhinsoni Gray 1862 

Black Petrel 
Procellaria oequinoctialis Linne 1758 

White-chinned Petrel 
Adamastor cinereus (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Brown Petrel 
Priocella antarctica (Stephens 1826, Fulmarus) 

Silver- Grey Petrel 
Pterodroma macroptera (Smith 1840, Procellaria) 

Grey-faced Petrel 
Pterodroma neglecta (Schlegel 1863, Procellaria) 

Kermadec Petrel 
Pterodroma externa (Salvin 1875, Oestrelata) 

Sunday Island Petrel 
Pterodroma inexpectata (Forster 1844, Procellaria) 

Mottled Petrel 
Pterodrofna oliveri (Mathews and Iredale 1914, JEstrelata) 

Small-billed Petrel 
yEstr.eluta lessonii (Garnot 1826, Procellaria) 

White-headed Petrel 
Cookilaria cookii (Gray 1843, Procellaria) 

White-winged Petrel 
Petrella capensis (Linne 1758, Procellaria) 

Spotted Petrel 
Thalassoica antarctica (Gmehn 1789, Procellaria) 

Antarctic Petrel 
Halobcena ccerulea (Gmehn 1789, Procellaria) 

Blue Petrel 
Heteroprion helcheri Mathews 1912. 
Thin-billed Prion 


Heteroprion desolaius (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Dove Prion 
Pseudoprion turtur (Kuhl 1820, Procellaria) 

Fairy Prion 
Pachyptila vittata (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Broad-billed Prion 
Macronectes giganteus (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Giant Petrel 
Family Pelecanoididte. Diving Petrels 
Pelecanoides urinatrix (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Diving Petrel 

Superfamily Diomedeoidea 

Family Diomedeidge. Albatrosses 
Phoebetria jusca (Hilsenberg 1822, Diomedea) 

Sooty Albatross 
Phoebetria palpebrata (Forster 1785, Diomedea) 

Liglit-mantled Sooty Albatross 
Thalassarche melanopliris (Temm. & Lang. 1828, Diomedea) 

Black-browed Mollymawk 
Thalassarche hidleri (Rothschild 1893, Diomedea) 

Snares Island Mollymawk 
Thalassarche chrysostoma (Forster 1785, Dio7nedea) 

Flat-billed Mollymawk 
Thalassarche chlororhynchus (Gmelin 1789, Diomedea) 

Yellow-nosed Mollymawk 
Diomedella cauta (Gould 1841, Diomedea) 

Bounty Island Mollymawk 
Diomedea exulans Linne 1758 

Wandering Albatross 
Diomedea epomophora Lesson 1825 

Royal Albatross 
Diomedea chionoptera Salvin 1896 

Snowy Albatross 

Order Fregati 
Suborder Fregatiformes 
Family Fregatidse. Frigate Birds 
^'Fregata minor (Gmelin 1789, Pelecanus) 
Frigate Bird 


^Fregata ariel (Gray 1845, Atageii) 
Lesser Frigate Bird 

Order Pelecani 

Suborder Pelecaniformes 

Superfamily Phalacrocoracoidea 

Family Plialacrocoracidse. Cormorants or Shags 

Hypoleucus varius (Gmelin 1789, Pelecanus) 

Pied Shag 
Hypoleucus carunculatus (Gmehn 1789, Pelecanus) 

Rough-faced Shag 
■Hypoleucus cam-pibelli (Filhol 1878, Urile) 

Campbell Island Shag 
Hypoleucus chalconotus (Gray 1845, Graculus) 

Bronze Shag 
Stictocarho punctatus (Sparrman 1786, Pelecanus) 

Spotted Shag 
Stictocarho feather stoni (BuUer 1873, Phalacrocorax) 

Chatham Islands Shag 
Mesocarho ater (Lesson 1831, Carho) 

Little Black Shag 
Microcarho brevirostris (Grould 1837, Phalacrocorax) 

White-throated Shag 
Phalacrocorax carbo (Linne 1758, Pelecanus) 
Black Shag 
Family Anhingidse. Darters 
^Anhinga 7iovcehollandice (Gould 1847, Plotus) 
Australian Darter 

Superfamily Pelecanoidea 
Family Pelecanidse. Pelicans 
*Catoptropelicanus conspicillatus (Temm. & Laug. 1824, 

Australian Pelican 

Superfamily^ Suloidea 
Family Suliclee. Gannets 
*Sula leucogaster (Boddaert 1783, Pelecanus) 

Brown Gannet 
Parasula daclylaira (Lesson 1831, Sula) * 

Masked Gannet 


Sulita serrator (Gray 1845, Sula) 

Order Lari 
Suborder Phaethontiformes 
Family Phaethontidse. Tropic Birds 
Scceophaethon rubricauda (Boddaert 1783, Phaeton) 
Red-tailed Tropic Bird 

Suborder Lariformes 
Family Sternidse. Terns and Noddies 
^Chlidonias leucoptera (Temminck 1815, Sterfia) 

White-winged Tern 
Chlidonias cdhistriata (Gray 1845, Hydrochelidon) 

Black-fronted Tern 
Sterna striata Gmelin 1789 

White-fronted Tern 
Sterna vittata Gm.elin 1789 

Sub-antarctic Tern 
Sternula nereis Gould 1843 

Fairy Tern 
*Thalasseus hergii (Lichtenstein 1823, Sterna) 

Crested Tern 
Hydrofrogne caspia (Pallas 1770, Sterna) 

Caspian Tern 
Onychopi'ion fuscatus (Linne 1766, Sterna) 

Sooty Tern 
Procelsterna cerulea (Bennett 1840, Sterna) 

Little Grey Noddy 
Megalopterus minutus (Boie 1844, Anous) 

White-capped Noddy 
^Anoiis stolidus (Linne 1758, Sterna) 

Leucanous alhus (Sparrman 1786, Stermi) 
White Tern 

Family Laridae. GuUs 
Larus dMminicanus Lichtenstein 1823 

Bla,ck-backed GiiU 
BrucTiigavia novoehollandice (Stephens 1826, Larus) 
Red-biUed Gull 


Bruchigavid melanorhyncha Buller 1869 

Black-biUed GuU 

Family Stercorariidee. Skuas 
Catharada lonnhergi Mathews 1912 

Great Skua 
*Cathardcta maccormicki (Saunders 1893, Stercorarius) 

South Polar Skua 
* Stercorarius 'parasiticus (Linne 1758, Larus) 

Arctic Skua 

Suborder Charadriiformes 
Superfamily Scolopacoidea 
Family Scolopacidse. Snipe, Sandpipers, etc. 
Ccenocorypha aucklandica (Gray 1845, Gallinago) 

"^Ditelmatias hardwichii (Gray 1831, Scolopax) 

AustraUan Snipe 
Canutus canutus (Linne 1758, Tringa) 

*Erolia jerruginea (Briinnich 1764, Tringa) 
Curlew Sandpiper 

Limnocinclus acuminatus (Horsfield 1821, Totanus) 

Sharp -tailed Stint 
^Pisobia ruficollis (Pallas 1776, Trynga) 

Red-necked Stint 

*Glottis nebularius (Gunnerus 1767, Scolopax) 

^Heteractitis iricanus (Gmehn 1789, Scolopax) 

Grey Sandpiper 
Vetola lapponica (Linne 1758, Scolopax) 

^Vetola hcemastica (Linne 1758, Scolopax) 

American Godwit 
*Mesoscolopax minutus (Gould 1841, Nume^iius) 

Little Whimbrel 
*Ph(Eopus phceopus (Linne 1758, Scolopax) 

Australian Whimbrel 


Numenius cyano'pus Vieillot 1817 

Australian Curlew 
Fa^mily Phalaropidse. Phalaropes 
*Phalaropus fulicarius (Linne 1758, Tringa) 

Grey Plialarope 
Family Recurvirostriclse. Avocets and Stilts 
Himantopus leiicocephalus Gould 1837. 

Himantopus novcezealandioe Gould 1841 

Black Stilt 
*Recurvirostra novcehoUandice Vieillot 1816 

Red-necked Avocet 

Superfamily Charadrioidea 
Family Hsematopodidse. Oyster catchers 
Hcematopus ostralegus Linne 1758 

Hamatopus unicolor Forster 1844 

Black Oystercatcher 
Family Arenariidse. Turnstones 
Arenaria interpres (Linne 1758, Tringa) 


Family Charadriidse. Plovers 
Pluvialis dominicus (Miiller 1776, Gharadrius) 

Lesser Golden Plover 
Pluviorhynchus ohscurus (Gmelin 1789, Gharadrius) 

Girrepidesmus hicinctus (Jarcline & Selby 1827, Gharadrius) 

Double-banded Dotterel 
^Leucopolius ruficapillus (Temm. & Laug. 1821, Gharadrius) 

Red-capped Dotterel 
Anarhy7ichus frontalis Quoy and Gaimard 1830 

V^ry -billed Plover 
*Eupodella vereda (Gould 1848, Gharadrius) 

Oriental Dotterel 
Thinornis novceseelandice (Gmelin 1789, Gharadrius) 

Shore Plover 
Family VaneUidge. Wattled Plovers 


*Lobibyx novcehollandice (Stephens 1819, Vanellus) 
Spur-winged Plover 

Superfamily Glareoloidea 
Family Glareolidse. Pratincoles and Coursers 
*StiUia isabella (Vieillot 1816, Glareola) 
Australian Pratincole 

Order Ralli. 

Suborder Ralliformes 
Family Rallidee. Rails 
Rallus muelleri Rothschild 1893 

Auckland Islands Rail 
Cahalus modestus (Hutton 1872, Rallus) 

Little Chatham Islands Rail 
HypotcBnidia philippensis (Linne 1766, Rallus) 

Buff-banded Rail 
Nesolimnas dieffenbachii (Graj^ 1843, Rallus) 

Chatham Islands Rail 
Gallirall%s australis (Sparrman 1786, Rallus) 

Brown Woodhen 
Gallirallus hrachypterus Lafresnaye 1841 

Black Woodhen 
Gallirallus hectori (Hutton 1874, Ocydrornus) 

Woodhen or Weka 
*Crex crex (Linne 1758, Rallus) 

Zapornia pusilla (PaUas 1776, Rallus) 

Marsh Rail. 
Porzanoidea plumhea (Griffith and Pidgeon " 1829," Crex) 

Swamp Rail 
Family GaUinuhdse. GaUinules 
Porphyrio melanotus Temminck 1820 

Swamp Hen 
Mantellornis hochstetteri (Meyer 1883, Notornis) 


Family Fulicidse, Coots 
*Fulica atra Linne 1758 



Suborder Podicipiformes 
Family Podicipidse. Grebes 
Podiceps cristatus (Linne 1758, Colymbus) 

Great Crested Grebe 
Poliocephalus rufopectus (Gray 1843, Podiceps) 

Order Apteryges 

Suborder Apterygiformes 
Family Apterygidse. Kiwis 
Apteryx australis Shaw and Nodder 1813 

Apteryx owenii Gould 1847 

Little Grey Kiwi 
Apteryx haastii Potts 1872 

Great Grey Kiwi 

Order Galli 

Suborder Galliformes 
Superfamily Phasianoidea 
Family Perdicidse. Partridges and Quails 
Coiurnix novmzealandioe Quoy and Gaimard 1830 

Order Columbi 

Suborder Columbiformes 
Family Treronidse. Fruit Pigeons 

Hemiphaga novmseelandim (Gmelin 1789, Columba) 

Hemiphaga chathamensis (Rothschild 1891, Carpophaga) 
Chatham Islands Pigeon 

Order Anates 

Suborder Anatiformes 
Family Anatidse. Ducks and Geese 

Cte7ia7ias eytoni (Eyton 1838, Leptotarsis) 
Whistling Duck 

Casarca variegata (Gmelin 1789, Anas) 
Paradise Duck 


Anas swperciliosa Gmelin 1789 

Grey Duck 
Virago gibberifrons (Miiller 1842, Anas) 

Grey Teal 
Virago castanea (Eyton 1838, Mareca) 

Green-headed Teal 
Elasmonetta cJilorotis (Gray 1845, AnA:is) 

Brown Duck 
Nesonetta aucklandica Gra^y 1844 

Auckland Islands Duck 
Spatula rhynchotis (Latham 1801, Anas) 

Hymenolaimus malctcorhynchus (Gmehn 1789, Anas) 

Mountain Duck 
Nyroca australis Ej^ton 1838 

White-eyed Duck 
Fuligula novceseelandice (Gmelin 1789, Anas) 

Promergtts australis (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841, Mergus) 

Auckland Islands Merganser 

Order Herodiones 
Suborder Ardeiformes 
Family Ardeidse. Herons and Bitterns 
*Ardea cinerea Linne 1758 
Grey Heron 
Notophoyx novcehoUandice (Latham 1790, Ardea) 

White-fronted Heron 
Casmerodius albus (Linne 1758, Ardea) 

Great White Heron 
Demigretta matook (VieiUot 1817, Ardea) 

Blue Heron 
*Nycticorax caledonicus (Gmelin 1789, Ardea) 

Night Heron 
Ixobrychus nmiutus (Linne 1766, Ardea) 

Little Bittern 
Botaurus poiciloptilus (Wagler 1827, Ardea) 
Black-backed Bittern 

Family Plegadidse. Ibises 


*Plegadis falcinellus (Linne 1766, Tantalus) 

Glossy Ibis 
Family Plataleidge. Spoonbills 
*Spatherodia regia (Gould 1838, Platalea) 

Royal Spoonbill 

Order Falcones 

Suborder Falconiformes 
Superfamily Falconoidea 
Family Falconidse. Falcons 
Nesierax novmJiollandicB (Gmelin 1788, Falco) 

Quail Hawk 
Nesierax pottsi Mathews and Iredale 1913 

Bush Hawk 
*Cerchneis cenchroides (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Falco) 
Nankeen Kestrel 
Family Aquilidse. Eagles, Harriers, etc. 
Circus approximans Peale 1848 

Order Striges 

Suborder Strigiformes 
Family Strigidse. Wood-Owls, etc. 

Spiloglaux novceseelandice (Gmelin 1788, Strix) 

Sceloglaux albifacies (Gray 1844, Athene) 
Laughing Owl 

Order Psittaci 

Suborder Psittacif ormes 
Superfamily Strigopoiclea 
Family Strigopidse. Owl-Parrots 
Strigops habroptilus Gray 1845 

Superfamily Psittaculoidea 
Family Platycercidse. Broad-tailed Parrakeets 
CyanorampTius novcezelandice (Sparrman 1787, Fsittacus) 
Red-fronted Parrakeet 


Cyanoramphus unicolor (Lear 1831, Platycercus) 

Antipodes Island Parrakeet 
Cyanoramphus cmriceps (Kuhl 1820, Psittacus) 

Yellow-fronted Parrakeet 
Cyanoramphus malherbi Souance 1857 

Orange-fronted Parrakeet 
Superfamily Psittacoidea 
Family Nestoridse. Kakas and Keas 
Nestor meridionalis (Gmelin 1788, Psittacus) 

Nestor notabilis Gould 1856 


Order Cuculi 

Suborder Cuculiformes 
Superfamily Cuculoidea 
Family Cuculidse. Cuckoos 
^Cuculus optatus Gould 

Oriental Cuckoo 
Lamprococcyx lucidus (Gmelin 1788, Cuculus) 
Shining Cuckoo 

Family Eudynamytidse. Koels 
Urodynamis taitensis (Sparrman 1787, Cuculus) 
Long-tailed Cuckoo 

Order Coracise 

• Suborder Coraciiformes 
Superfamily Coracoidea 
Family Coraciidge. Rollers. 
Eurystomus orientalis (Linne 1766, Coracias) 

Order Halcyones 

Suborder Alcediniformes 
Superfamily Alcedinoidea 
Family Dacelonidse. Wood-Kingfishers. 
Sauropatis sanctus (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Halcyon) 


Order Macrochires 

Suborder Micropodiformes 
Family Micropodidse. Swifts 
*MicrojjUS i^acificus (Latham 1801, Hirnndo) 

Wliile-rumped Swift 
*Hiriindafus caudacutus (Latham 1801, Hirundo) 
Spine -tailed Swift 

Order Passeres 

Suborder Passeriformes 
Superf 8 mily Pittoidea 

Family Acanthisitlidse. Rifleman 
Acantliisiita Moris (Spariman 1787, Sitta) 


Family Xenicidse. Island Wrens 
Traversia lyalli Rothschild 1894 

Stephens Island Wren 
Xenicus longipes (Gmelin 1789, Motacilla) 

Bush Wren 
Xenicus gilviventris Pelzeln 1867 

Rock Wren 

Superfamily Passeroidea 

Family Hirundinidge. Swallows 
Hylochelidon nigricans (Vieillot 1817, Hirundo) 

Australian Tree-Swallow 
Family Muscicapidse. Flycatchers, etc. 
Myiomoira macrocephala (Gmelin 1789, Parus) 

South Island Tomtit 
Myiomoira toitoi (Lesson 1828, Muscicapa) 

North Island Tomtit 
Nesomiro traversi (BuUer 1872, Miro) 

Black Robin 
Nesomiro dannefcerdi (Rothschild 1894, Miro) 

Snares Island Black Robin. 
Miro australis (Sparrman 1788, Turdus) 

Maorigerygone igata (Quoy and Gaimard, 1830, Curruca) 

Grey Warbler 


Hapolorhynchus albofrontatus (Gray 1844, Gerygone ?) 

Chatham Islands Warbler 
Ehipidura flabellifera (GmeUn 1789, Muscicapa) 

Pied Fantail 
Rhipidura fuliginosa (Sparrman 1787, Muscicapa) 

Black Fantail 
Family Campophagidse. Cuckoo-Shrikes 

*Oraucalus robustus (Latham 1801, Lanius) 

Little Cuckoo-Shrike 
Family Turnagridse. Island Thrushes 
Turnagra tanagra (Schlegel 1865, Otagon) 

North Island Thrush 
Turnagra capensis (Sparrman 1787, Tanagra) 

South Island Thrush 

Family Bowdleriidse. Fern Birds 
Bowdleria punctata (Quoy and Gaimard 1830, Synallaxis) 

Fern Bird 
Bowdleria rufescens (Buller 1869, Sphenoeacus) 

Chatham Islands Fern Bird 
Family Paridse. Tits, etc. 
Mohoua ochrocephala (Gmelin 1789, Muscicapa) 

Certhiparus alhicilla (Lesson 1830, Fringilla) 

Finschia novceseelandice (Gmelin, 1789, Parus) 


Family Zosteropidse. White-eyes 
Zosterops lateralis (Latham 1801) 

Silver Eye 

Family Meliphagidse. Honey-eaters 
Anthornis melanura (Sparrman 1786, Certhia) 

BeU Bird 

Notiomystis cincta (Du Bus 1839, Meliphaga) 
Stitch Bird 

Prosthemadera novceseelandice (Gmelin 1788, M crops) 


*Coleia carunculata (Latham 1790, Merops) 
Yellow Wattle-Bird 
Family Motacillidse. Wagtails and Pipits 
Austranthus novceseelandioe (Gmelin 1789, Alauda) 
Ground Lark 
Family Heteralochidse. Huias 
Heteralocha acutirostris (Gould 1837, Neomorpha) 
Family Creadiontidse. Saddle Backs 
Creadion carunculatus (Gmelin 1789, Sturnus) 
Saddle Back 
Family CaUseadidae. Wattled Crows 
Callmas cinerea (Gmelin 1789, Olaucopis) 

Orange-wattled Crow 
Calloeas wilsoni (Bonaparte 1851, Olaucopis) 
Blue-wattled Crow 



By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 

In view of the preparation of a Manual of Australian Birds, 
we have reconsidered the higher classification of birds, and 
have put forth, in the preceding essay, our first attempt to 
improve upon the existing schemes as a basis for future work. 
We hope to make emendations as our knowledge advances, 
and once again state that we have no prejudices nor precon- 
ceived notions to obscure our judgment. At the present time, 
through the ehmination of a majority of nomenclatural ques- 
tions, we are able to ascend to the study of the higher group- 
ings, and we suggest this is a most important matter to the 
younger school of Austrahan ornithologists. In every single 
order there are anomalous forms demanding investigation, 
and in the Passeriform birds nearly every genus presents 
some pecuhar aspect suggesting critical examination. 

This List has been prepared as a simple guide to the species 
of Austrahan birds, with their technical names, according to 
the latest determinations. The date of description follows 
the author's name, and the original genus in which the species 
was placed by the clescriber is given, thus provichng an easy 
clue to the original description. 

In the Check List of the Birds of Austraha recently pub- 
lished in connection with the Birds of Australia by Mathews 
a complete and original synonymy, generic and specific, 
has been displayed, such as exists for students in no other, 
country save Austraha. We refer students to this for any 
additional information. 

We have included in this List the stragglers of which less 
than three occurrences are on record, but have marked these 
with an asterisk. It is not necessary to emphasise the fact 
that a good look-out should be kept for strangers, as it is 
possible that these items simply indicate the fact that these 
occur perhaps irregularly, perhaps regularly, in out of the 
way places. 


Class AVES 

Subclass Dromaeornithes 
Order Casuarii or Megistanes 

Suborder Casuariiformes 
Family Dromiceiidse. Emus 
Dromiceius novceJiollandice (Latham 1790, Casuarius) 

Peronista peroni (Rothschild 1907, Dromaius) 
Dwarf Emu 
Family Casuariidse. Cassowaries 
Casuarius casuarius (Linne 1758, Struthio) 

Subclass Impennes 
Order Sphenisci 
Suborder Sphenisciformes 
Family Spheniscidse. Thick-billed Penguins 
Eudyptula minor (Forster 1781, Aptenodytes) 

Fairy Penguin 
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Gray 1845 

Big-crested Penguin 
Eudyptes serresianus (Oustalet 1878, Eudyptula) 

Family Aptenodytidse. Thin-billed Penguins 
Eudyptes schlegeli Finch 1876 

Macaroni Penguin 
^Aptenodytes patagonica Miller 1778 
King Penguin 

Subclass Euornithes 

Order Procellarise or Tubinares 

Suborder Procellariiformes 

Superfamily Procellarioidea 

Family Thalassidromidse. Storm-Petrels 

Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl 1820, Procellaria) 

Yellow-webbed Storm-Petrel 
Garrodia nereis (Gould 1841, Thalassidroma) 

Grey -backed Storm-Petrel 
Pelagodroma marina (Latliam 1790, Procellaria) 
White-faced Storm-Petrel 


*Fregetta tropica (Gould 1844, Thalassidroma) 

Black-bellied Storm-Petrel 
*Fregetta tubulata Mathews 1912 

White-bellied Storm-Petrel 
Family Procellariidse. Shearwaters and Fulmars 
Pujjinus assimilis Gould 1838 

Alhed Shearwater 
Eeinholdia reinholdi (Mathews 1912, Puffinus) 

Fluttering Shearwater 
Thyellodroma pacifica (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Wedge-tailed Shearwater 
Neonectris griseus (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Sombre Shearwater 
Neonectris tenuirostris (Temm. & Laug. 1835, Procellaria) 

Short-tailed Shearwater 
Hemipufflnus carneipes (Gould 1844, Puffinus) 

Fleshy-footed Shearwater 
* Procellaria parkinsoni Gray 1862 

Black Petrel 
*Adamastor cinereus (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Brown Petrel 
Priocella antarctica (Stephens 1826, Fulmarus) 

Silver-Grey Petrel 
Pterodroma macroptera (Smith 1840, Procellaria) 

Grey-faced Petrel 
^Pterodroma melanopus (Gmehn 1789, Procellaria) 

Brown-headed Petrel 
^Pterodroma inexpectata (Forster 1844, Procellaria) 

Mottled Petrel 
"^ Pterodroma mollis (Gould 1844, Procellaria) 

Soft-plumaged Petrel 
^strelata lessonii (Garnot 1826, Procellaria) 

White-headed Petrel 
Cookilaria cookii (Gray 1843, Procellaria) 

White-winged Petrel 
Petrella capensis (Linne 1758, Procellaria) 

Spotted Petrel 


Halohmna ccerulea (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Blue Petrel 
Heteroprion belcheri Mathews 1912 

Thin-billed Prion 
Heteroprion desolatus (Gmehn 1789, Procellaria) 

Dove Prion 
Pseudoprion turtur (Kuhl 1820, Procellaria) 

Fairy Prion 
Pachyptila vittata (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Broad-billed Prion 
Macronectes giganteus (Gmehn 1789, Procellaria) 

Giant Petrel 
Family Pelecanoididse. Diving Petrels 
Pelecanoides urinatrix (Gmelin 1789, Procellaria) 

Diving Petrel 

Superfamily Diomedeoidea 

Family Diomedeidse. Albatrosses 
*Phoehetria fusca (Hilsenberg 1822, Diomedea) 

Sooty Albatross 
Thalassarche melanophrys (Temm. & Laug. 1828, Diomedea) 

Black-browed MoUymawk 
*Thalassarche chrysostoma (Forster 1785, Diomedea) 

Grey-headed Mollymawk 
ThalassarcTie cJdororliynchus (Gmelin 1789, Diomedea) 

Yellow-nosed Mollymawk 
Diomedella cauta (Gould 1841, Diomedea) 

White-capped Albatross 
Diomedea exulans Linne 1758 

Wandering Albatross 
^Diomedea chionoptera Salvin 1896 

Snowy Albatross 

Order Fregati 
Suborder Fregatiformes 
Family Fregatidae. Frigate Birds 
*Fregata mirior (Gmelin 1789, Pelecanus) 

Frigate Bird 
Fregata ariel (Gray 1845, Atagen) 
Lesser Frigate Bird 


Order Pelecani 

Suborder Pelecaniformes 
Superfamily Phalacrocoracoidea 
Family Phalacrocoracidse. Cormorants or Shags 
Hypoleucus perthi Mathews 

Pied Cormorant 
Hypoleucus fuscescens (Vieillot 1817, Hydrocorax) 

Black-faced Cormorant 
Mesocarbo ater (Lesson 1831, Carbo) 

Little Black Cormorant 
Microcarbo melanoleucus (Vieillot 1817, Hydrocorax) 

Little Cormorant 
Phalacrocorax carbo (Linne 1758, Pelecanus) 

Black Cormorant 

Family Anhingidee. Darters 
Anhinga novcehollandice (Gould 1847, Plotus) 


Superfamily Pelecanoidea 
Family Pelecanidse. Pehcans 
Catoptropelicanus conspicillatus (Temm. & Laug. 1824, 


Superfamily Suloidea 
Family Sulidse. Gannets 
Sula leucogaster (Boddaert 1783, Pelecanus) 

Brown Gannet (Booby) 
Piscatrix sula (Linne 1766, Pelecanus) 

Red-legged Gannet 
Parasula dactylatra (Lesson 1831, Sula) 

Masked Gannet 
Sulita serrator (Gray 1845, Sida) 


Order Lari 

Suborder Phaethontiformes 
Family Phaethontidse. Tropic Birds 
Leptopliaethon lepturus (Daudin 1802, Phaeton) 
White -tailed Tropic Bird 


SccBophaethon rubricauda (Boddaert 1783, Phaeton) 
Red-tailed Tropic Bird 

Suborder Lariformes 
Family Sternidse. Terns and Noddies 

Chlidonias leucopareia (Temminck 1820, Sterna) 

Whiskered Tern 
Chlidonias leucoptera (Temminck 1815, Sterna) 

White-winged Tern 
Sterna striata Gmelin 1789 

White -fronted Tern 
Sterna dougallii Montagu 1813 

Roseate Tern 
Oygisterna sumatrana (Raffles 1822, Sterna) 

Black-naped Tern 
Sternula albifrons (Vroeg 1764, Sterna) 

White-shafted Ternlet 
Sternula nereis Gould 1843 

White-faced Ternlet 
Thalasseus bergii (Lichtenstein 1823, Sterna) 

Crested Tern 
Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesson 1831, Sterna) 

Lesser Crested Tern 
Gelochelidon nilotica (Gmelin 1789, Sterna) 

GuU-billed Tern 
Hydroprogne caspia (Pallas 1770, Sterna) 

Caspian Tern 
Melanosterna ancethetus (Scopoli 1786, Sterna) 

Bridled Tern 
Onychoprion fuscatus (Linne 1766, Sterna) 

Sooty Tern 
Megalopterus minutus (Boie 1844, Arious) 

White-capped Noddy 
Megalopterus tenuirostris (Temm. & Laug. 1823, Sterna) 

Lesser Noddy 
Anous stolidus (Linne 1758, Sterna) 



Family Laridse. Gulls 

Bruchigavia novcehollandice (Stephens 1826, Larus) 

SUver Gull 
Oahianus pacificus (Latham 1801, Larus) 

Pacific Gull 

Family Stercorariidse. Skuas 
Catharacta lonnhej^gi Mathews 1912 

Antarctic Skua 
*Coprotheres pomarinus (Temminck 1815, Lestris) 

Pomarine Skua 
Stercorarius parasiticus (Linne 1758, Larus) 

Arctic Skua 

Suborder Charadriiformes 
Superfamily Burhinoidea 

Family Burhinidse. Stone Plovers 
Burhinus magnirostris (Latham 1801, Charadrius) 

Stone Plover 
Orthorhamphus magnirostris (Vieillot 1818, CEdicnemus) 

Long-billed Stone Plover 

Superfamily Scolopacoidea 
Family Rostratulidae. Painted Snipe 
Rostratula australis (Gould 1838, Rhyyichoea) 
Painted Snipe 

Family Scolopacidae. Snipe, Sandpipers, etc. 
Ditelmatias hardwickii (Gray 1831, Scolopax) 

Suhspilura megala (Swinhoe 1861, Gallinago) 

Pin-tailed Snipe 
Canutus canutus (Linne 1758, Tringa) 

Anteliotringa tenuirostris (Horsfield 1821, Totanus) 

Great Knot 
Platyrhamphus falcinellus (Briinnich 1764, Scolopax) 

Broad -biUed Sandpiper 
Erolia jerruginea (Briinnich 1764, Tringa) 

Curlew Sandpiper 


Limnocinclus acuminatus (Horsfield 1821, Totanus) 

Sharp -tailed Stint 
Pisobia rufcollis (Pallas 1776, Trynga) 

Red-necked Stint 
^Pisobia subminuta (Middendorff 1851, Tringa) 

Long -toed Stint 
Crocethia leucophcea (Vroeg 1764, Trynga) 

Glottis nebular ius (Gunnerus 1767, Scolopax) 

Iliornis stagnatilis (Bechstein 1803, Totanus) 

Little Greenshank 
RhyacopMlus glareola (Linne 1758, Tringa) 

Wood Sandpiper 
Actitis hypoleucus (Linne 1758, Tringa) 

Common Sandpiper 
Terehia cinerea (Gueldenstadt 1774, Scolopax) 

Terek Sandpiper 
Heteractitis incanus (Gmelin 1789, Scolopax) 

Wandering Tattler 
Heteractitis brevipes (Vieillot 1816, Totanus) 

Grey-rumped Sandpiper 
*Bartramia longicauda (Bechstein 1811, Tringa) 

Long -tailed Sandpiper 
Vetola lapponica (Linne 1758, Scolopax) 

Barred-rumped Godwit 

{To be continued.) 


Austral Avian Record 

Is published at irregular intervals, about four times 
per year, in parts of about 24 pages each, and 
often with a coloured Plate ; eight parts form 
a volume. Price per volume 12/- post free. 

The *' Austral Avian Record'* contains : 

1. Discussions regarding the relationships and ranges of 

species and subspecies of particuleur genera, especially 
those which will not be dealt with in the immediate 
future in Mathews's "Birds of Australia," or those 
that have been. " 

2. Revision of what has been published in the " Birds of 

Australia," when accession of material and new facts 
necessitate such revision. 

3. Description of new forms. 

4. Discussions regarding nomenclature. 

5. Supplements to the " Reference List of the ' Birds of 

Australia.' " 

6. Dates of Publication of works about which any doubt 


Australian Agents : — Melbourne, Melville & Mullen 
Proppietapy Limited ; Sydney, Angus & Robertson 
Limited ; Adelaide, E. S. Wigg & Son ; Brisbane, 
Watson, Ferguson & Co. Limited ; Launceston. 
Birchall & Sons; Perth, E. S. Wigg & Son. 

WITHERBY & CO., 326, High Holborn, London, W.C.I. 

"^^Mai i^ij,^f.i! 





VOL. IV. Nos. 4 & 5. 

isstjed in connexion with the 
Austral Avian Museum, Fair Oak> Hants, England 



H. F. & G. WITHERBY, 326 High Holbobn, London, W.C.I 

December itith, 1920. 

4 1QQ- 


Vol. IV., Nos. 4 and 5 December 16th, 1920. 


A Name- List op the Birds of Austrai^ia . . . . 73 

Forgotten Bird-Artists and an Old-Time Orni- 
thologist .. .. .. .. .. ..114 

Snipe and Sandpipers : A Rearrangement . . . . 123 

Sheeborn and the Systematist .. .. .. 130 


By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 


Limosa limosa (Linne 1758, Scolopax) 

Black-tailed Godwit 
Mesoscolopax minutus (Gould 1841, Numenius) 

Little Whimbrel 
Phceopus phceopus (Linne 1758, Scolopax) 

Numenius cyanopus Vieillot 1817 


Family Recurvirostridse. Avocets and Stilts 

Himantopus leucocephalus Gould 1837 

White-headed Stilt 
Cladorhynchus leucocephalus (Vieillot 1816, Recurvirostra) 

Banded Stilt 
Recurvirostia novcehollandice Vieillot 1816 

Red-necked Avocet 


Superfamily Charadrioidea 

Family Hsematopodidae. Oystercatcliers 

Hcematopus ostralegus Linne 1758 

Pied Oystercatclier 
Hamatopus unicolor Forster 1844 

Black Oystercatclier 

Family Arenariidse. Turnstones 

Arenaria interpres (Linne 1758, Tringa) 

Family Cliaradriidse. Plovers 

Squatarola squatarola (Linne 1758, Tringa) 

Grey Plover 
Pluvialis dominicus (Miiller 1776, Charadrius) 

Lesser Golden Plover 
Cirrejjidesmus mongolus (Pallas 1776, Charadrius) 

Mongolian Sand Dotterel 
Nesoceryx hicinctus (Jardine and Selby 1827, Charadrius) 

Double -banded Dotterel 
Pagoa leschenauUii (Lesson 1826, Charadrius) 

Large Sand Dotterel 
Leucopolius ruficapillus (Temm. & Laug. 1821, Charadrius) 

Red-capped Dotterel 
Charadrius cucullatus Vieillot 1818 

Hooded Dotterel 
Eupodella vereda (Gould 1848, Charadrius) 

Oriental Dotterel 
Elseyornis melanops (Vieillot 1818, Charadrius) 

Black -fronted Dotterel 

Family Vanellidse. Wattled Plovers 

Lohihyx miles (Boddaert 1783, Tringa) 

Lesser Masked Plover 
Lohibyx novcehollandice (Stephens 1819, Vanellus) 

Spur-winged Plover 
Zonifer tricolor (Vieillot 1818, Charadrius) 

Black -breasted Plover 


Erythrogonys cinctus Gould 1838 
Red -kneed Dotterel 

Superfamily Jacanoidea 

Family Jacanidse. Jacanas 

Irediparra gallinacea (Temm. & Laug. 1828, Parra) 
Lotus Bird 

Superfamily Glareoloidea 
Family Glareolidge. Pratincoles and Coursers 

Glareola maldivarum Fovster 1195 

Oriental Pratincole 
Stiltia isahella (Vieillot 1816, Glareola) 

Peltohyas australis (Gould 1841, Eudromius) 


Suborder Otidiformes 

Family Otididse. Bustards 

Austrotis australis (Griffith and Pidgeon " 1829," Otis) 

Order Psophii or Grues 
Suborder Psophiiformes 
Family Balearicidae. Cranes 
Matheiusena ruhicunda (Perry 1810, Ardea) 
Brolga or Native Companion 

Order Ralli 

Suborder Ralliformes 

Family Rallidae. Rails 

Rallus pectoralis Temm. & Laugier 1831 

Slate -breasted Rail 
Tomirdus tricolor (Gray 1858, Rallina) 

Red-necked Rail 
Hypotcenidia philippensis (Linne 1766, Rallus) 

Buff -banded Rail 


Eulaheornis castaneoventris Gould 1844 

Chestnut -be;llied Rail 
*Crex crex (Linne 1758, Rallus) 

Land Rail 
Porzana fluminea Gould 1843 

Spotted Crake 
Zajjornia fusilla (Pallas 1776, Rallus) 

Little Crake 
Porzanoidea plumhea (Griffith and Pidgeon " 1829," Crex) 

Spotless Crake 
Poliolimiias cinereus (Vieillot 1819, Porphyrio) 

White -browed Crake 

Family Gallinulidse. Gallinules 

Aynaurornis moluccanus (Wallace 1865, Porzana) 

Rufous-tailed Moorhen 
Gulliimla tenebrosa Gould 1846 

Black Moorhen 
Microtrihonyx ventralis (Gould 1837, Gallinula) 

Black -tailed Water Hen 
Trihonyx mortierii Du Bus 1840 

Native Hen 
Porphyrio melanotus Temminck 1820 

Bald Coot 
Porphyrio hellus Gould 1841 

Blue Bald Coot 

Family Fulicidee. Coots 

Fulica atra Linne 1758 

Suborder Podicipiformes 

Family Poclicipidse. Grebes 

Podiceps cristatus (Linne 1758, Colymhus) 

Tippet Grebe 
Tachybaptus ruficollis (Vroeg 1764, Colymbus) 

Black-throated Grebe 
Tachybaptus poliocephalus (Jardine and Selby 1827, Podiceps) 

Hoary-headed Grebe 


Order Galli 

Suborder Galliformes 

Superfamily Megapodioidea 

Family Megapodiidse. Megapodes 

Megapodius reimvardt "Diimont 1823 

Scrub Fowl 
Leipoa ocellata Gould 1840 

Mallee Fowl 
Alechira lathami Gray 1831 


Superfamily Pliasianoidea 
Family Perdicidse. Partridges and Quails 

Coturnix pectoralis Gould 1837 

Stubble- Quail 
Ypsilopliorus ypsilophorus (Bosc 1792, Coturnix) 

Brown Quail 
Excalfactoria chinensis (Linne 1766, Tetrao) 

King- Quail 

Suborder Turniciformes 

Family Turnicidse. Hemipodes 

Turnix maculosa (Temminck 1815, Hemipodius) 

Black-backed Quail 
Marianornis varius (Latham 1801, Perdix) 

Painted Quail 
Austroturnix olivii (Robinson 1900, Turnix) 

Allied Quail 
Austroturnix castanota (Gould 1840, Hemipodiits) 

Chestnut-backed Quail 
Alphaturnia velox (Gould 1841, Hemipodius) 

Little Quail 
Alphaturnia pyrrliothorax (Gould 1841, Hemipodius) 

Red-chested Quail 
Coldoughia melanogaster (Gould 1837, Hemipodius) 

Black-breasted Quail 


Family Pedionomidse. Plain-Wanderer 

Pedionomus torquatus Gould 1840 
Plain- Wanderer 

Order Columbse 

Suborder Columbiformes 

Family Columbidse. Pigeons 

Leucomeloena norfolciensis (Latham 1801, Columba) 
White-headed Pigeon 

Macropygia pliasianella (Temminck 1821, Columba) 
Pheasant Pigeon 

Family Turturidse. Doves 

Chrysauchoena humeralis (Temminck 1821, Columba) 

Barred- shouldered Dove 
Geopelia flacida Gould 1844 

Stictopeleia cuneata (Latham 1801, Columba) 

Spotted-shouldered Dove 
Chalcophaps chrysochlora (Wagler 1827, Columba) 

Little Green Dove 
Phaps chalcoptera (Latham 1790, Columba) 

Bronze- Wing 
Cosmopelia elegans (Temminck and Knip 1810, Columba) 

Brush Bronze- Wing 
Histriophaps histrionica (Gould 1841, Columba) 

Petrophassa albipennis Gould 1841 

White-quilled Rock Pigeon 
Petrophassa rufipennis CoUett 1898 

Chestnut-quilled Rock Pigeon 
Geophaps scripta (Temminck 1821, Colu?nba) 

Partridge Pigeon 
Geophaps smithii (Jardine and Selby 1830, Columba) 

Naked-eyed Partridge Pigeon 
Lophophaps plumijera (Gould 1842, Geophaps) 

Plumed Pigeon 


LophophajJs ferruginea Gould 1865 

Red -plumed Pigeon 
Ocyphaps lophotes (Temm. and La.ugier 1822, Golumba) 

Crested Pigeon 
Leucosarcia melanoleuca (Latham 1801, Golumba) 


Family Treronidse. Fruit Pigeons 
Ptilinopiis regina Swainson 1825 

Red-crowned Fruit Pigeon 
Ptilinopiis superba (Temm. and Knip 1810, Columba) 

Purple-crowned Fruit Pigeon 
Megaloprepia magnifica (Temminck 1821, Columha) 

Purple -breasted Fruit Pigeon 
Leucotreron alligator (Collett 1898, Ptilopus) 

Black-banded Fruit Pigeon 
Myristicivora bicolor (Scopoli 1786, Columba) 

Nutmeg Pigeon 
^Globicera pacifica (Gmelin 1789, Golumba) 

Grey-headed Pigeon 
*Globicera rubricera Bonaparte 1854 

Red-cered Pigeon 
Lopholaimus anta7Xticus (Shaw 1793, Golumba) 

Top-knot Pigeon 

Order Anates 

Suborder Anatiformes 

Family Cereopsidse. Cape Barren Goose 
Gereopsis novcehoUandice Latham 1801 
Cape Barren Goose 

Family Anseranatidse. Pied Geese 
Anseranas semipalmata (Latham 1801, Anas) 
Pied Goose 

Family Anatidse. Swans, Geese and Ducks 

Gheniscus coromandelianus (Gmehn 1789, Anas) 

White-quilled Goose Teal 

Gheniscus pulchellus (Gould 1842, Nettapus) 

Green Groose Teal 


Chenonetta jubata (Latham 1801, Anas) 

Wood Duck 
Chenopis atrata (Latham 1790, Anas) 

Black Swan 
Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield 1821, Anas) 

Whisthng Duck 
Ctenanas eytoni (Eyton 1838, Leptotarsis) 

Plumed Whisthng Duck 
Radjah radjah (Garnot 1828, Anas) 

White-headed Sheld-Drake 
Casarca tadornoides (Jardine and Selby 1828, Anas) 

Mountain Duck 
Anas superciliosa Gmehn 1789 

Black Duck 
*Querquedula querquedida (Linne 1758, Anas) 

Garganey Teai 
Virago gibberifrons (Miiller 1842, A7ias) 

Grey Teal 
Virago castanea (Eyton 1838, Mareca) 

Green -headed Teal 
Stictonetta ncevosa (Gould 1841, Anas) 

Freckled Duck 
Spatula rhyncJiotis (Latham 1801, Anas) 

Malacorhynchus meynbrarmceus (Latham 1801, Ana.s) 

Pink-eared Duck 
Nyroca australis Eyton 1838 

White-eyed Duck 
Eriswatura australis (Gould 1837, Oxyura) 

Blue-billed Duck 
Biziura lobata (Shaw and Nodder 1796, Anas) 

Musk Duck 

Order Herodiones 

Suborder Ardeiformes 

Family Ardeidse. Herons and Bitterns 

Typhon sumatranus (Raffles 1822, Ardea) 
Great -billed Heron . 


Notophoyx novcehollandice (Latham 1790, Arclea) 

White-fronted Heron 
Myola pacifica (Latham 1801, Ardea) 

White-necked Heron 
Tonophoyx aruensis (Gray 1858, Ardea) 

Pied Egret 
Egretta garzetta (Linne 1766, Ardea) 

Lesser Egret 
MesopJioyx intermedia (Wagier 1829, Ardea) 

Phimed Egret 
Casmerodius alhus (Linne 1758, Ardea) 

White Egret 
Demigretta matooJc (Vieillot 1817, Ardea) 

Bhie Reef Heron 
Demigretta greyi (Gould 1848, Herodias) 

White Reef -Heron 
Nycticorax caledonicus (Gmehn 1789, Ardea) 

Butorides -striata (Linne 1758, Ardea) 

Little Mangrove Bittern 
Butorides rogersi Mathews 1911 

Red Mangrove Bittern 
Ixohrychus minutus (Linne 1766, Ardea) 

Little Bittern 
Dupetor flavicollis (Latham 1790, Ardea) 

Yellow-necked Mangrove Bittern 
Botaurus poiciloptilus (Wagier 1827, Ardea) 


Family Ciconiidae. Storks 

Xenorhynchus asiaticus (Latham 1790, Mycteria) 

Family Plegadidae. Ibises 

Plegadus falcinellus (Linne 1766, Tantalus) 

Glossy Ibis 
Carphibis spinicollis (Jameson 1835, Ibis) 

Straw-necked Ibis 


Threskiornis molucca (Cuvier 1829, Ibis) 
White Ibis 

Family Plataleidse. Spoonbills 
Platihis flavipes (Gould 1838, Platalea) 

Yellow-billed Spoonbill 
Spatherodia regia (Gould 1838, Platalea) 

Black-billed Spoonbill 

Order Falcones 

Suborder Falconiformes 

Superfamily Falconoidea 

Family Falconidse. Falcons 

Cerchneis cenchroides (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Falco) 

Nankeen Kestrel 
leracidea berigora (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Falco) 

Brown Hawk 
Notofalco subniger (Gray 1843, Falco) 

Black Falcon 
Falco longipennis Swainson 1837 

Little Falcon 
Falco hypoleucus Gould ISAl 

Grey Falcon 
Rhynchodon peregrinus (Tunstall 1771, Falco) 

Black-cheeked Falcon 

Family Aquilidse. Eagles and Hawks, etc. 
Lophastur subcristatus (Gould 1838, Lepidogenys) 

Crested Hawk 
Elanus notatus Gould 1838 

Black-shouldered Kite 
Elanus scriptus Gould 1842 

Letter-winged Kite 
Lophoicti7iia isura (Gould 1838, Milvus) 

Square-tailed Kite 
Milvus migrans (Boddaert 1783, Falco) 

AlHed Kite 
Oypoictinia melanosterna (Gould 1841, Buteo) 

Black-breasted Buzzard 


Haliastur sphenurus (Vieillot 1818, Milvus) 

Whistling Eagle 
Haliastur indus (Boddaert 1783, Falco) 

White-headed Sea Eagle 
Cuncuma leucogaster (Gmelin 1788, Falco) 

White-bellied Sea Eagle 
Hieraaetus pennahis (Gmelin 1788, Falco) 

Little Eagle 
UroaetMS audax (Latham 1801, Vultiir) 

Wedge-tailed Eagle (Eagle Hawk) 
Erythrotriorchis radiatus (Latham 1801, Falco) 

Red Goshawk 
Accipiter cirrhocephalus (Vieillot 1817, 8parvius) 

Collared Sparrow-Hawk 
Urospiza fasciata (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Astur) 

Leucospiza raii (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Astur) 

Grey Goshawk 
LeucospizOi novoehollandice (Gmelin 1788, Falco) 

White Goshawk 
Circus approxiinans Feale 1848 

Swamp Hawk 
Circus assimilis Jardine and Selby 1828 

Spotted Harrier 

Family Pandionidse. Ospreys 

Pandion haliaetus (Linne 1758, Falco) 

Order Striges 

Suborder Strigiformes 

Family Strigidse. Wood Owls 

Spiloglaux novceseelandice (Gmelin 1788, Strix) 

Boobook Owl 
Hieracoglaux connivens (Latham 1801, Falco) 

Winking Owl 
Rhabdoglaux rufa (Gould 1846, Athene) 

Rufous Owl 


Berneyornis strenuus (Gould 1838, Athene t) 
Powerful Owl. 

Family Tytonidse. Barn Owls 
Tyto alba (Scopoli 1769, Strix) 

Barn Owl 
Tyto novcehoUandias (Stephens 1826, Strix ?) 

Masked Owl 
Tyto longimembris (Jerdon 1839, Strix) 

Grass Owl 
Megastrix tenebricosa (Gould 1845, Strix) 

Sooty Owl 

Order Psittaci 
Suborder Psittaciformes 
Superfaniily Psittaculoidea 
Family Pezoporidse. Ground Parrots 

Oeopsittacus occidentalis Gould 1861 

Spinifex Parrot 
Pezoporus ivallicus (Kerr 1792, Psittacus) 

Ground Parrot 
Melopsittacus imdulatus (Shaw and Nodder, 1805, Psittacus) 


Family Platycercidse. Broad-tailed Parrakeets 
Lathamus discolor (White 1790, Psittacus) 

Smft Parrot 
Neophema pidchella (Shaw and Nodder 1792, Psittacus) 

Red-shouldered Grass Parrot 
Neophema splendida (Gould 1841, Euphema) 

Scarlet -chested Grass Parrot 
Neonanodes chrysogaster (Latham 1790, Psittacus) 

Orange-bellied Parrot 
Neonanodes chrysosto7nus (Kuhl 1820, Psittacus) 

Blue -winged Parrot 
Neonanodes elegans (Gould 1837, N anodes) 

Grass Parrot 
Neonanodes petrophilus (Gould 1841, Euphema) 

Rock Parrot 


Neopsephotus bourkii (Gould 1841, Euphema) 

Blue-vented Parrot 
Psephotellus pulcherrimus (Gould 1845, Platycercus) 

Beautiful Parrot 
Psephotellus chrysopterygius (Gould 1858, Psephotus) 

Golden-shouldered Parrot 
Psephotellus dissimilis (Collett 1898, Psephotus) 

Black-hooded Parrot (Monk) 
Northiella hceynatogaster (Gould 1838, Platycercus) 

Blue Bonnett 
Psephotus hcEmatonotus (Gould 1838, Platycercus) 

Red-backed Parrot 
Psephotus varius (Clark 1910, Psephotus) 

Varied Parrot 
Platycercus caledonicus (Gmehn 1788, Psittacus) 

Green Parrot 
Platycercus flaveolus Gould 1837 

Yellow Parrot and Adelaide Rosella 
Platycercus elegans (Gmelin 1788, Psittacus) 

Crimson Parrot 
Platycercus icterotis (Kuhl 1820, Psittacus) 

Yellow-cheeked Parrot 
Platycercus adscitus (Latham 1790, Psittacus) 

Blue-cheeked Parrot 
Platycercus venustus (Kuhl 1820, Psittacus) 

Smutty Parrot 
Platycercus eximius (Shaw and Nodder 1792, Psittacus) 

Barnardius barnardi (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Platycercus) 

Mallee Parrot (Smoker) 
Barnardius zonarius (Shaw and Nodder 1805, Psittacus) 

Purpureicephalus spurius (Kuhl 1820, Psittacus) 

Red-capped Parrot (Pilot) 

Family Polytelitidse. King Parrots 

Alisterus scapularis (Lichtenstein 1818, Psittacus) 
King Parrot 


Aprosmicius erythropterus (Gmelin 1788, Psittacus) 

Red-winged Parrot 
Polytelis swainsonii (Desmarest 1826, Psittacus) 

Green Leek 
Polytelis anthopeplus (Lear 1831, Palceornis) 

Rock Pebbler 
Northipsitta alexandroe (Goukl 1863, Polyteles) 

Pink-cheeked Parrot 

Family Leptolophidas. Cockatiels 
Leptolophus hollandicus (Kerr 1792, Psittacus) 


Superfamily Psittacoidea 
Family Loriidse. Lories 
Geoffroyus geoffroyi (Bechstein 1811, Psittacus) 

Red-clieeked Parrot 
Lorius pectoralis (Miiller 1776, Psittacus) 

Red-sided Parrot 

Superfamily Kakatoeoidea 
Family Kakatoeidse. Cockatoos 
Eolophus roseicapillus (Vieillot 1817, Cacatua) 

Ducorpsius sanguineus (Gould 1843, Cacatua) 

Blood-stained Cockatoo 
Licmetis tenuirostris (Kuhl 1820, Psittacus) 

Kakatoe galerita (Latham 1790, Psittacus) 

\^^iite Cockatoo 
Lophochroa leadbeateri (Vigors 1831, Plyctolophus) 

Wee Juggler 
Callocorydon fimbriatus (Grant 1803, Psittacus) 

Harrisornis lathami (Temminck 1807, Psittacus) 

Glossy Cockatoo 
Calyptorhynchus banksii (Latham 1790, Psittacus) 

Banksian Cockatoo 
Zanda funerea (Shaw and Nodder 1796, Psittacus) 

Black Cockatoo 
Zanda haudinii (Lear 1832, Psittacus) 

White-tailed Black Cockatoo 


Family Proboscigeridse. Palm Cockatoos 
Probosciger aterrimus (Gmelin 1788, Psittacus) 
Palm Cockatoo 

Superfamily Trichoglossoidea 

Family Trichoglossidse. Lorikeets 

Trichoglossus moluccanus (Gmelin 1788, Psittacus) 

Blue- bellied Lorikeet 
Trichoglossus rubritorquis Vigors and Horsfield 1827 

Red-collared Lorikeet 
Eidelipsitta chlorolepidota (Kuhl 1820, Psittacus) 

Scaly-breasted Lorikeet 
Psitteuteles versicolor (Lear 1831, Trichoglossus) 

Varied Lorikeet 
Glossopsitta concinna (Shaw and Nodder 1791, Psittacus) 

Musk Lorikeet 
Glosso'psitta porphyrocephala (Dietrichsen 1837, Trichoglossus) 

Purple-crowned Lorikeet 
Glossopsitta pusilla (White 1790, Psittacus) 

Little Lorikeet 

Family Opopsittidse. Lorilets 

Opopsitta leadbeateri (McCoy 1875, Cyclopsitta) 

Blue-faced Lorilet 
Opopsitta coxeni (Gould 1867, Cyclopsitta) 

Red-faced Lorilet 

Order Cuculi 

Suborder Cuculiformes 

Superfamily Cuculoidea 

Family Cuculidse. Cuckoos 

Cuculus optatus Gould 1845 

Oriental Cuckoo 
Heteroscenes pallidus (Latham 1801, Colmnba) 

Pallid Cuckoo 
Cacomantis pyrrhop)ha7ius (Vieillot 1817, Cuculus) 

Square -tailed (Brush) Cuckoo 
Cacomayitis rubricatus (Latham 1801, Sylvia) 

Fan-tailed Cuckoo 


Vidgenia castaneiventris (Gould 1867, Cuculus) 

Chestnut -breasted Cuckoo 
Ow&navis osculans (Gould 1847, Chalcites) 

Black-eared Cuckoo 
Chalcites hasalis (Horsfield 1821. Cuculus) 

Narrow-billed Bronze Cuckoo 
Lam.prococcyx russatus (Gould 1868, Chrysococcyx) 

Rufous -breasted Bronze Cuckoo 
Lamprococcyx minutillus (Gould 1859, Chrysococcyx) 

Little Bronze Cuckoo 
Lamprococcyx plagosus (L&tham. 1801, Cuculus) 

Bronze Cuckoo 
Lainprococcyx lucidus (Gmelin 1788, Cuculus) 

Broad- billed Bronze Cuckoo 

Family Eud3^namytid8e. Koels 

Eudynmnys orientalis (Linne 1766, Cuculus) 

Family Scythropidse. Channel Bills 
Scythrops novcehollandice Latham 1790 
Channel Bill 

Family Polophilidse. Coucals 
Polophilus phasianinus (Latham 1801, Cuculus) 

Order Coracise 

Suborder Coraciiformes 

Superfamily Podargoidea 

Family Podargidge. Frogmouths 

Podargus strigoides (Latham 1801, Caprimulgus) 

Micropodargus ocelloius (Quoy and Gaimard 1830, Podargus) 

Marbled Frogmouth 
Micropodargus plumiferus (Gould 1846, Podargus) 

Plumed Frogmouth 
Megapodargus papuensis (Quoy and Gaimard 1830, Podargus) 

Large Frogmouth 


Family ^gothelidse. Owlet Nightjars 
Mgotheles cristata (White 1790, Caprimulgus) 
Owlet Nightjar 

Superfamily Coracioidea 

Family Coraciidse. Rollers 
Eurystomus orientalis (Linne 1766, Coracias) 
Roller or Dollar Bird 

Order Halcyones 

Suborder Alcediniformes 

Superfamily Meropoidea 

, Family Meropidse. Bee-Eaters 

Cosinaerops ornatus (Latham 1801, Merojjs) 

Superfamily Alcedinoidea 
Family Alcedinidse. Kingfishers 
Alcyone azurea (Latham 1801, Alcedo) 

Blue Kingfisher 
Micralcyone pusilla (Temm. & Laugier 1836, Ceyx) 

Little Kingfisher 
Family Dacelonidse. Wood-Kingfishers 
Lazulena macleayii (Jardine and Selby 1830, Halcyon) 

Forest Kingfisher 
Cyanalcyon pyrrhopygms (Gould 1840, Halcyon) 

Red-backed Kingfisher 
Sauropatis sancta (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Halcyon) 

Sacred Kingfisher 
Sauropatis chloris (Boddaert 1783, Alcedo) 

Mangrove Kingfisher 
Synia torotoro Lesson 1827 

Yellow-billed Kingfisher 
Dacelo novceguinece (Hermann 1783, Alcedo) 

Dacelo leachi Vigors and Horsfield 1827 

Blue-winged Kingfisher 
Uralcyon sylvia (Gould 1850, Tanysiptera) 

White-tailed Kingfisher 


Order Macrochires 
Suborder Caprimulgiformes 

Family Caprimulgidse. Nightjars 
Eurostopodus guttatus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827, Caprunulgus) 

Spotted Nightjar 
E'lirostopodus mystacalis (Temm. & Laug. 1826, Caprimulgus) 

White-throated Nightjar 
Rossornis macrurus (Horsfield 1821, Caprimulgus) 

Large- tailed Nightjar 

Suborder Micropodiformes 
Family Micropodidse. Swifts 

Micropus pacificus (Latham 1801, Hirundo) 

White-rumped Swift 
Hirundapus caudacutus (Latham 1801, Hirundo) 

Spine-tailed Swift 
Zoonava fnmcica (GmeHn 1789, Hirundo) 

Grey-rumped Swiftlet 
*Zoonava fuciphaga (Thunberg 1812, Hirundo) 

Uniform Swiftlet 

Order Menurse 

Suborder Menuriformes 

Family Menuridae. Lyre Birds 
Harriwhitea alherti (Bonaparte 1850, Menura) 

Northern Lyre Bird 
Menura novcehollandice Latham 1801 

Lyre Bird 

Order Passeres 

Suborder Passeriformes 

Superfamily Pittoidea 

Family Pittidse. Pittas 

Aust'i opitta versicolor (Swainson 1825, Pitta) 

Noisy Pitta 
Eryihropitta fimcklotii (Temm. & Laugier 1834, Pitta) 
Blue-breasted Pitta 


Pulchripitta iris (Gould 1842, Pitta) 
Rainbow Pitta 

Superfamily Atrichornithoidea 

Family Atrichornithidae. Scrub Birds 
Atrichornis rufescens (Ramsay 1867, Atrichia) 

Rufous Scrub Bird 
Rahcinta clamosa (Gould, 1844, Atrichia) 

Noisy Scrub Bird 

Superfamily Passeroidea 

Family Hirundinidse. Swallows 
Hiriindo neoxena Gould 1842 

Welcome Swallow 
*Hirundo rustica Linne 1758 

^Hyjyurolc'pis javanica (Sparrman 1789, Hirundo) 

Short-tailed Swallow 
Cherainoeca leucosternum (Gould 1841, Hirundo) 

. Black and White Swallow 
Hylochelidon nigricans (Vieillot 1817, Hirundo) 

Lagenoplastes ariel (Gould 1842, Gollocalia) 

Fairy Martin 
Family Muscicapid*. Flycatchers, etc. 
Microeca fasci7ians {LiBjiham. 1801, Loxia) 

Brown Flycatcher 
Microeca brunneicauda Campbell 1902 

Brown-tailed Flycatcher 
Kempia flavigaster (Gould 1843, Microeca) 

Lemon-breasted Flycatcher 
Petroica multicolor (Gmelin 1789, Muscicapa) 

Scarlet-breasted Robin 
Whiteornis goodenovii (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Muscicapa) 

Red-capped Robin 
Littlera chrysoptera (Quoy and Gaimard 1830, Muscicapa) 

Flame-breasted Robin 
Erythrodryas rodinogaster (Drapiez 1819, Saxicola) 

Pink-breasted Robin 


Belchera rosea (Gould 1840, Petroica) 

Rose-breasted Robin 
Melanodryas cucuUata (Latham 1801, Muscicapa) 

Hooded Robin 
Amaurodryas vittata (Qnoy & Gaimard 1830, Muscicajm) 

Dusky Robin 
Smicrornis brevirosiris (Gould 1838, Psilopus) 

Gerygone oUvacea (Gould 1838, Psilopus) 

White-throated Flyeater 
Wilsonmns richmondi Mathews 1915 

Brown Flyeater 
Eilielornis magnirostris (Gould 1843, Gerygone) 

Large-billed Flyeater 
Ethelornis cairnsensis (Mathews 1912, Gerygone) 

Allied Flyeater 
Ethelornis tenehrosus (Hall 1901, Pseudogerygone) 

Dusky Flyeater 
Ethelornis chloronotus (Gould 1843, Gerygone) 

Green-backed Flyeater 
Ethelornis levigaster (Gould 1843, Gerygone) 

Buff-breasted Flyeater 
Ethelornis cantator (Weatherill 1908, Pseudogerygone) 

Singing Flyeater 
Ethelornis mouki (Mathews 1912, Gerygone) 

Queensland Flyeater 
Ethelornis 7nastersi (Sharpe 1879, Pseudogerygone) 

Gulf Flyeater 
Ethelornis fuscus (Gould 1838, Psilopus) =ctdicivorus olim 

Pseudogerygone palpebrosa (Wallace 1865, Gerygone) 

Black-throated Flyeater 
Iredaleornis cinereifrons (Ramsay 1876, Poecilodryas 1) 

Ashy-fronted Fly Robin 
Poecilodryas siiperciliosa (Gould 1847, Petroica) 

White-browed Robin 
Poecilodryas cerviniventris (Gould 1858, Petroica ?) 

Buff-sided Robin 


Tregellasia capita (Gould 1854, Eopsaltria) 

Large-headed Robin 
Tregellasia leucops (Salvadori 1876, Leucophantes) 

White-throated Fly Robin 
Kempiella kempi Mathews, 1913 

Yellow-breasted Robin 
Pachycephala pectoralis (Latham 1801, Muscicapa) 

White-throated Thickhead 
Pachycephala rohusta Masters 1876 

Big-billed Thickhead 
Pachyceplmla melanura Gould 1843 

Black-tailed Thickhead 
Lewinornis rufiventris (Latham 1801, Sylvia) 

Rufous-breasted Thickhead 
Gilbertornis rufogularis (Gould 1841, Pachycephala) 

Red-lored Thickhead 
Gilbertornis inornatus (Gould 1841, Pachycephala,) 

Black-lored Thickhead 
Alisterornis lanioides (Gould 1840, Pachycephala) 

White-bellied Thickhead 
Timixos olivaceus (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Pachycephala) 

Ohve Thickhead 
Mattingleya griseiceps (Gray 1858, Pachycephala) 

Grey Thickhead 
Muscitrea simplex (Gould 1843, Pachycephala) 

Brown Thickliead 
Peneoenanthe leucura (Gould 1869, Eopsaltria) 

Mangrove Robin 
Quoyornis georgianus (Quoy and Gaimard 1830, Muscicapa) 

White-breasted Shrike Robin 
Eopsaltria australis (White 1790, Motacilla) 

Yellow-breasted Shrike Robin 
Eopsaltria griseogularis Gould 1838 

Grey-breasted Shrike Robin 
Rhipidura jlahellifera (Gmelin 1789, Muscicapa) 

Hoioeavis ruflfrons (Latham 1801, Muscicapa) 

Rufous Fantail 


Setosura setosa (Quoy and Gaimard 1830, Muscipeta) 

Northern Fantail 
Leticocirca leucophrys (Latham 1801, Turdus) 

Black and White Fantail 
Master somis rubecula (Latham 1801, Todus) 

Leaden Flycatcher 
Mastersornis cyanoleucus (Vieillot 1818, Platyrhynchos) 

Satin Flycatcher 
Mastersornis ruficollis (Vieillot 1818, Platyrhynchos) 

Broad-billed Flycatcher 
MacJicerirhynchus flavi venter Gould 1851 

Yellow-breasted Wherry bill 
Seisura inquieta (Latham 1801, Turdus) 

Restless Flycatcher 
Ofhryzone kaupi (Gould 1851, Arses) 

Black-breasted Flycatcher 
Proseisura lorealis (De Vis 1895, Arses) 

Frill-necked Flycatcher 
Piezorhynchus alecto (Temm. & Laugier 1827, Drymophila) 

Shining Flycatcher 
Syw.posiachrus trivirgatus (Temm. & Laugier 1820, Drymophila) 

Spectacled Ftycatcher 
Carterornis leucotis (Gould 1850, Monarcha) 

White-eared Flycatcher 
Monarcha melanopsis (Vieillot 1818, Muscicapa) 

Black-faced Flycatcher 

Family Campophagidse. Cuckoo Shrikes, etc. 
Pteropodocys maxima (Riippell 1839, Cehlepyris) 

Ground Cuckoo Shrike 
Graucalus novcehollandicE (Gmelin 1789, Turdus) 

Black-faced Cuckoo Shrike 
Graucalus hypoleucus (Gould 1848) 

White-bellied Cuckoo Shrike 
Graucalus robustus (Latham 1801, Lanius) 

Little Cuckoo Shrike 
Paragraucalus lineatus (Swainson 1825, Cehlepyris) 

Barred Cuckoo Shrike 


Metagraucalus tenuirostris (Jardine 1831, Oraucalus) 

Lalage tricolor (Swainson 1825, Ceblepyris) 

Kama leucomela (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Campephaga) 

Pied Caterpillar-eater 
Family Sphecotheridae. Fig Birds 
Sphecotheres vieilloti (Vigors and Horsfield 1827) 

Fig Bird 
Sphecotheres flaviventris Gould 1849 

Yellow-bellied Fig Bird 
^'Sphecotheres salvadorii Sharpe 1877 

Grey-throated Fig Bird 
Family Orthonycidse. Ground Birds, etc. 
Orthonyx maculatiis (Stephens 1826) 

Macrorthonyx spaldingi (Ramsay 1868, Orthonyx) 

Black-headed Logrunner 
Cinclosoma punctatum (Shaw 1794, Tardus) 

Spotted Ground Bird 
Cinclosoraa castanotum Gould 1841 

Chestnut-backed Ground Bird 
Samuela cinnamomea (Gould 1846, Cinclosoma) 

Cinnamon Ground Bird 
Samuela aUsteri (Mathews 1910, Cinclosoma) 

Black-breasted Ground Bird 
Drymodes hrunneopygia CtOuM 1841 

Scrub Robin 
Drymodes superciliaris Gould 1850 

Northern Scrub Robin 
Pycnoptilus floccosus Gould 1851 

Pilot Bird 
Hylacola pyrrhopygia (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Acanthiza) 

Ground Wren 
Hylacola cauta Gould 1843 

Western Ground Wren 
Psophodes olivaceus (Latham 1801, Corvus) 

Coachwhip Bird 


Psophodes nigrogularis Gould 1844 

Black-throated Coachwhip Bird 
PomatostoTnus temporalis (Vigors & Hors. 1827, Pomatothinus) 

Morganornis superciliosus (Vigors & Hors. 1827, Pomatorhinus) 

White-browed Babbler 
Morganornis ruficeps (Hartlaub 1852, Pomatorhinus) 

Chestnut-crowned Babbler 
Calamanthus fuliginosus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827, Anthus) 

Striated Field Wren 
Calamanthus camjjestris (Gould 1841, Praticola) 

Field Wren 
Cinclorhamphus cruralis (Vigors & Horsfield 1827, Megalurus) 

Brown Song Lark 
Maclennania mathewsi (Ireclale 1911, Cindoramphus) 

Rufous Song Lark 
Family Turdidae. Thrushes, Chats, etc. 
Oreocincia lunulata (Latham 1801, Tiirdus) 

Ground Thrush 
Epthianura alhijrons (Jarcline & Selby 1828, Acanthiza) 

White-fronted Chat 
Parepthianura tricolor (Gould 1841, Ephthianura) 

Tricolored Cliat 
Aurepthianura aurifrons (Gould 1838, Epthianura) 

Orange-fronted Chat 
Aurepthianura crocea (Castelnau & Ramsay 1877, Epthianura) 

Yellow-breasted Chat 
Ashbyia lovensis (Ashby 1911, Ephthianura) 

Desert Bush-Chat 

Family Sylviidse. Warblers. 
Conopoderas australis (Gould 1848, Acrocephalus) 

Cisticola exilis (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Malurus) 

Grass Warbler 
Poodytes grarnineus (Gould 1845, Sphemeacus) 

Grass Bird 
Dulciornis alisteri (Mathews 1912, Megalurus) 

Tawny Grass Bird 


Eremiornis carteri North. 1 900 

Desert Bird 
Origmella solitaria (Lewin 1808, Sylvia) 

Rock -Warbler 
CMhonicola sagittata (Latham 1801, Sylvia) 

Little Field- Wren 
Acantliiza pusilla (White 1790, Motacilla) 

Brown Tit 
Acanthiza nana Vigors and Horsfield 1827 

Little Tit 
Acanthiza inornata Gould 1841 

Plain-coloured Tit 
Acanthiza lineata Gould 1838 

Striated Tit 
Acanthiza urofygialis Gould 1838 

Chestnut-rumped Tit 
A ca nthiza iredalei Mathews 1911 

Thin-biUed Tit 
Milligania .robustirostris (Milligan 1903, Acanthiza) 

Thick-billed Tit 
Geobasileus chrysorrhous (Quoy & Gaimard 1830, Saxicola) 

Yellow-rumped Tit 
Geobasileus reguloides (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Acanthiza) 

Buff-rumped Tit 
Geobasileus hedleyi (Mathews 1912, Acanthiza) 

Dark Brown Tit 
Pyrrholcemus brunneus Gould 1841 

Neosericornis lathami (Stephens 1817, Muscicapa) 

Yellow-throated Scrub Wren 
Sericornis frontalis (Vigors & Horsfield 1827, Acanthiza) 

Scrub Wren 
Sericornis magnirostris (Gould 1838, Acanthiza) 

Large-billed Scrub Wren 
Sericornis maculatus Gould 1847 

Spotted Scrub Wren 
Sericornis ? tyrannulus De Vis 1905 

Northern Scrub Wren 


Tasmanornis humilis (Gould 1838, Sericornis) 

Brown Scrub Wren 
Oreoscopus gutturalis (De Vis 1890, Sericornis) 

Collared Scrub Wren 
Acanthornis magnus (Gould 1855, Acanthiza) 

Scrub Tit 
Malurus cyaneus (Gmelin 1789, Motacilla) 

Blue Wren 
Malurus melanotus Gould 1841 

Black-backed Wren 
Malurus splendens (Quoy & Gaimard 1830, Saxicola) 

Banded Wren 
Hallornis leuconotus (Gould 1865, Malurus) 

White-winged Wren 
Nesomiilurus leucopterus (Dumont 1824, Malurus) 

Black and White Wren 
Leggeornis lamberti (Vigors & Horsfield 1827, Malurus) 

Variegated Wren 
Leggeornis elegans (Gould ] 837, Malurus) 

Red- winged Wren 
Leggeornis aynahilis (Gould 1851, Malurus) 

Lovely Wren 
Leggeornis pulcherrimus (Gould 1844, Malurus) 

Blue-breasted Wren 
Bosina coronata (Gould 1857, Malurus) 

Purple-crowned Wren 
Ryania melanocephala (Latham 1801, Muscicapa) 

Red-backed Wren 
Stipiturus malachurus (Shaw 1798, Muscicapa) 

Emu Wren 
Sphenura hrachyptera (Latham 1801, Turdus) 

Bristle Bird 
Maccoyornis broadbenti (McCoy 1867) 

Rufous Bristle Bird 
Diaphorillas textilis (Dumont 1824, Malurus) 

Grass Wren 
Diaphorillas striata (Gould 1840, Dasyornis) 

Striated Grass Wren 


Eyramytis goyderi (Gould 1875, Ainytis) 

Lake Eyre Grass Wren 
Magnamytis luoodwardi (Hartert 1905, Amytornis) 

White-throated Grass Wren 
Magnamytis dorothece Mathews 1914 

Black and White Grass Wren 
Magnamytis Jiousei (Milhgan 1902, Aynytis) 

Black Grass Wren 
Family Artamidae. Wood Swallows 
Artamus leucoryn{chus) (Linne 1771, Lanius) 

White-rumped Wood Swallow 
Campbellornis personatus (Gould 1841, Ocypterus) 

Masked Wood Swallow 
Campbellornis superciliosus (Gould 1837, Ocypterus) 

WTiite-browed Wood Swallow 
Austrartamus cinereus (Vieillot 1817, Artamus) 

Black-faced Wood Swallow 
Angroyan cyanopterus (Latham 1801, Loxia) 

Wood Swallow 
Micr artamus minor (Vieillot) 

Little Wood Swallow 
Family Prionopidse. Shrike Thrushes, etc. 
Colluricincla harmonica (Latham 1801, Tibrdus) 

Shrike Thrush 
Colluricincla hrunnea Gould 1841 

Brown Shrike Thrush 
Colluricincla rufiventris Gould 1841 

Buff-bellied Shrike Thrush 
Alphacincla woodwardi (Hartert 1905, Colluricincla) 

Red-bellied Shrike Thrush 
Conigrcwea parvula (Gould 1845, Colluricincla) 

Little Shrike Thrush 
Caleya megarhyncha (Quoy and Gaimard 1830, Muscicapa) 

Rufous-breasted Shrike Thrush 
Bowyeria boweri (Ramsay 1885, Collyriocincla) 

Stripe-breasted Shrike Thrush 
Grallina cyanoleuca (Latham 1801, Corvus) 

Magpie Lai'k 


Family Cracticidse. Butcher Birds, etc. 
Oymnorhina tibicen (Latham 1801, Coracias) 

Black-backed Magpie 
Gymnorhina hypoleuca (Gould 1837, Cracticus) 

White-backed Magpie 
Melloria quoyi (Lesson and Garnot 1827, Barita) 

Black Butcher Bird 
Cracticus nigrogularis (Gould 18IJ7, Vanga) 

Black-throated Butcher Bird 
Bulestes torquatus (Latham 1801, Latham) 

Collared Butcher Bird 
Bulestes mentalis (Salv. &D'Albertis 1876 (or 5 ?), Cracticus) 

Black-backed Butcher Bird 
Strepera gracuUna (White 1790, Corvus) 

Pied Crow Shrike 
Strepera melanoptera Gould 1846 

Black-winged Crow Shrike 
Strepera fuliginosa (Gould 1837, Coronica) 

Black Crow Shrike 
Neostrepera versicolor (Latham 1801, Corvus) 

Grey Crow Shrike 

Family Falcuncuhdse. Shrike Tits, etc. 

Falcunculus jrontatus (Latham 1801, Lanius) 

Shrike Tit 
Falcunculus leucogaster Gould 1838 

Yellow-bellied Shrike Tit 
Oreoica gutturalis (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, Falcunculus) 

Crested Bell Bird 

Family Sphenostomidse. Wedge Bills, etc. 

Aphelocephala leucopsis (Gould 1841, Xerophila) 

Aphelocephala pectoralis (Gould 1871, Xerophila) 

Chestnut-breasted Whiteface 
Aphelocephala, castaneive^itris (Milhgan 1903, Xerophila) 

Murchison Whiteface 
S'phenostoma cristatum Gould 1838 

Wedge Bill 


Family Sittidae. Treerunners 

Neositta chrysoptera (Latham 1801, Sitta) 

Orange-winged Treerunner 
Neositta leucocephala (Gould 1838, Sittella) 

White-headed Treerunner 
Neositta 'pileata (Gould 1838, Sittella) 

Black-capped Treerunner 
Neosittella striata (Gould 1869, Sittella) 

Striated Treerunner 

Familj' Certhiidae. Creepers 

Climactei'is leucophaa (Latham 1801, Certhia) 

White-throated Treecreeper 
Climacteris erythrops Gould 1841 

Red-browed Treecreeper 
Climacteris superciliosa North 1895 

White-browed Treecreeper 
Neoclima picurnna (Temm. & Laugier 1824, Climacteris) 

Brown Treecreeper 
Whitlocka melanura (Gould 1843, Climacteris) 

Black-tailed Treecreeper 
Whitlocka melanota (Gould 1847, Climacteris) 

Black-backed Treecreeper 
Whitlocka rufa (Gould 1841, Climacteris) 

Rufous Treecreeper 

Family Zosteropidse. White-eyes 

Zoster ops lateralis (Latham 1801, Sylvia) 

Zoster ops gouldi Bonaparte 1851 

Green-backed White-eye 
Zosterops albiventris Reichenbach 1850 

Pale-belhed White- eye 
Zosterops lutea Gould 1843 

Yellow White-eye 

Family Dicaeidse. Flowerpeckers 
Austrodicceum hirundinaceum (Shaw & Nodder 1792, Motacilla) 
Flowerpecker or Mistletoe Bird 


Family Pardalotidse. Pardalotes 
Pardalotus punctatus (Shaw & Nodder 1792, Pipra) 

Spotted Pardalote (Diamond Bird) 
Pardaloti7ius melanocephalus (Gould 1838, Pardalotus) 

Black-headed Pardalote 
Pordalotinus rubricatus (Gould 1838, Pardalotus) 

Bed-browed Pardalote 
Pardalotinus striatus (Gmehn 1789, Pipra) 

Yellow tipped Pardalote 
Nesopardalotus quadragintus (Gould 1838, Pardalotus) 

Forty-spotted Pardalote 

Family Nectariniidse. Sun Birds 

Cyrtostomus jrenatus (Muller 1483, Nedarinia) 
Sun Bird 
Family Mehphagidse. Honey-eaters 

Melithreptus lunatus (Shaw 1802, Certhia) 

White-naped Honey-eater 
Melithreptus gularis (Gould 1837, Hcematops) 

Black-chinned Honey-eater 
Melithreptus validirostris (Gould 1837, Hmmatops) 

Strong-billed Honey-eater. 
Melithreptus atricapillus (Latham 1801, Certhia) 

Brown-headed Honey-eater. 
Melithreptus affinis (Lesson 1839, Eidopsarus) 

Black-headed Honey-eater 
Plectorhamphus lanceolatus (Gould 1838, Plectorhyncha) 

Striped Honey-eater 
Myzomela sanguineolenta (Latham 1801, Certhia) 

Sanguineous Honey-eater 
Myzomela erythrocephala Gould 1840 

Red-headed Honey-eater 
Cissomela pectoralis (Gould 1841, Myzomela) 

Banded Honey-eater 
Cissomela nigra (Gould 1838, Myzomela) 

Black Honey-eater 
Melomyza obscura (Gould 1843, Myzomela) 

Duskv Honev-eater 


Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Latham 1801, Certhia) 

Acanthorhynchus superciliosus Gould 1837 

White-browed Spinebill 
Gliciphila melanops (Latham 1801, Certhia) 

Tawny-fronted Honey-eater 
Purnella alhifrons (Gould 1841, Glyciphala) 

White-fronted Honey-eater 
Ramsayornis modestus (Gray 1858, Glyciphila) 

Brown-backed Honey-eater 
Ramsayornis fasciatus (Gould 1843, Glyciphila) ^ 

White-breasted Honey-eater 
Grantiella picta (Gould 1838, Entornopihila) 

Painted Honey-eater 
Lacustroica whitei North 1910 

Inconspicuous Honey-eater 
Conopophila alhogularis (Gould 1843, Entojnophila ?) 

Rufous-breasted Honey-eater 
Conopophila rujogularis (Gould 1843, Entomophila ?) 

Red-throated Honey-eater 
Certhionyx variegatus Lesson 1830 

Pied Honey-eater 
Zanthomiza phrygia (Shaw 1794, Merops) 

Regent Honey-eater 
Stigmatops indistincta (Vigors & Horsfield 1827, Meliphaga) 

Least Honey-eater 
Glychichcera claudi (Mathews 1914, Macgillivrayornis) 

Green Honey-eater 
Ptilotina analoga (Reichenbach 1852, Ptilotis) 

Yellow-spotted Honey-eater 
Microptilotis gracilis (Gould 1866, Ptilotis) 

Little Yellow-spotted Honey-eater 
Paraptilotis fusca (Gould 1837, Meliphaga) 

Fuscous Honey-eater 
Paraptilotis chrysops (Latham. 1801, Sylvia) 

YeUow-faced Honey-eater 
Dorothina lewinii (Swainson 1837, Meliphaga) 

Yellow-eared Honey-eater 


Dorothina alhilineata (H. L. WKite 1917, Ptilotis) 

White-lined Honey-eater 
Dorothina virescens (Vieillot 1817, Meliihre'ptus) 

Singing Honey-eater 
Dorothina versicolor (Gould 1843, Ptilotis) 

Varied Honey-eater 
Dorothina fasciogularis (Gould 1854, Ptilotis) 

Fasciated Honey-eater 
Dorothina frenata (Ramsay 1875, Ptilotis) 

Bridled Honey-eater 
Caloptilotis 7nacleaya7ia (Ramsay 1875, Ptilotis) 

Yellow-streaked Honey-eater 
N eso ptilotis flavicollis (Vieillot 1817, Melithreptus) 

Yellow-throated Honey-eater 
Nesoptilotis leucotis (Latham 1801, Turdus) 

White-eared Honey-eater 
Hemiptilotis cockerelli (Gould 1869, Ptilotis) 

White-streaked Honey-eater 
Lophoptilotis leadbeteri (McCoy 1867, Ptilotis) 

Helmeted Honey-eater 
Lophoptilotis 7nelanops (Latham 1801, Turdus) 

Yellow-tufted Honey-eater 
Lichenostomus cratitius (Gould 1841, Ptilotis) 

Wattled-cheeked Honey-eater 
Sacrafnela keartlandi (North 1895, Ptilotis) 

Grey-headed Honey-eater 
Sacramela ornata (Gould 1838, Ptilotis) 

Yellow-plumed Honey-eater 
Sacramela plumula (Gould 1841, Ptilotis) 

Yellow-fronted Honey-eater 
Ptilotula flavescens (Gould 1840, Ptilotis) 

Yellow-tinted Honey-eater 
Ptilotula penicillata (Gould 1837, Meliphaga) 

White-plumed Honey-eater 
Broadbentia flava (Gould 1843, Ptilotis) 

Yellow Honey-eater 
Stomiopera unicolor (Gould 1843, Ptilotis) 

White-gaped Honey-eater 


Xanthotis ftaviventer (Lesson 1828, Myzantha) 

Streak-naped Honey-eater 
Phylidonyris 'pyrrJioptera (Latham 1801, Certhia) 

Crescent Honey-eater 
Meliornis 7iovcehoUandice (Latham 1790, Certhia) 

White-bearded Honey-eater 
Purnellornis niger (Bechstein 1811, Certhia) 

White-cheeked Honey-eater 
Manor ina melanoyhrys (Latham 1801, Turdus) 

Bel] Minah 
Myzantha melanocephala (Latham 1801, Gracula) 

Black-headed Minah 
Myzantha ftavigula Gould 1840 (Myzanthe) 

Yellow- throated Minah 
Coleia carunculata (Latham 1790, Merojps) 

Red-wattle Bird 
Dyottornis paradoxus (Daudin 1800, Corvus) 

Wattle Bird 
Anthochcera. chrysoptera (Latham 1801, Merops) 

Brush-wattle Bird 
Aca7ithagenys rujogularis Gould 1838 

Spiny-cheeked Honey-eater 
Entomyzon cyanotis (Latham 1801, Gracula) 

Blue-faced Honey-eater 
Philemon argenticeps (Gould 1840, Tropidorhynchus) 

Silver-crowned Friar Bird 
Philemon yorki Mathews 1912 

Helmeted Friar Bird 
Tropidorhynchus corniculatus (Latham 1790, Merops) 

Friar Bird 
Microphilemon orientalis (Latham 1790, Buceros) 

Yellow-throated Friar Bird 

Family MotaciUidae. Wagtails and Pipits 

^Budytes flava (Linne 1758, Motacilla) 

Yellow Wagtail 
Austranthus australis (Vieillot 1818, Anthus) 



Family Alaudidse. Larks 
Mirajra javanica Hors field 1821 

Bush Lark 

Family Ploceidte. Plocean Finches 
Tavistocka guttata (Shaw 1796, Loxia) 

Spotted-sided Finch 
Zo7imginthus belhis (Latham 1801, Loxia) 

Fire-tailed Finch 
Zonoeginihus oculatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1830, Fringilla) 

Red-eared Finch 
Tceniopygia castanotis (Gould 1837, Amadina) 

Chestnut-eared Finch 
Emhlema picta Gould 1842 

Painted Finch 
Stegano-pleura hichenovii (Vigors & Horsfield 1827, Fringilla) 

Banded Finch 
Donacola castaneotJiorax (Gould 1837, Amadina) 

Chestnut-breasted Finch 
Donacola flaviprymna Gould 1845 

Yellow-rumped Finch 
Donacola thorpei (Mathews 1913, Lonchura) 

Dun Finch 
Erythura trichroa (Kittlitz 1833, Fringilla) 

Blue-faced Finch 
Heteromunia pectoralis (Gould 1841, Amadina) 

White-breasted Finch 
Aidemosy7ie modesta (Gould 1837, Amadina)' 

Plum-head Finch 
Mgintha temporalis (Latham 1801, Fringilla) 

Red-browed Finch 
Bathilda ruficauda (Gould 1837, Aynadina) 

Red-faced Finch 
Poephila acuticauda (Gould 1840, Amadina) 

Long-tailed Finch 
Poephila goiddice (Gould 1844, Amadina) 

Gouldian Finch 
Alisteranus cinctus (Gould 1837, Amadina) 

Black-throated Finch 


Neopoephila per sonata (Gould 1842, Poephila) 

Masked Finch 
Neochmia phaeton (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841, Fringilla) 

Crimson Finch 
Neochmia albiventer Mathews 1914 

White-beUied Crimson Finch 

Family OrioUdse. Orioles 

Minieta sagittata (Latham 1801, Goracias) 

Mimeta flavocincta (King 1826, Mimetes) 

Yellow Oriole 

Family Dicruridse. Drongoes 

Dicruvopsis bracteatus (Gould 1843, Dicrurus) 
Spangled Drongo 

Family Graculidse. Glossy Starhngs 

Metallopsar metallicus (Temm. & Laugier 1824, Lamprotornis) 
Shining Starling- 
Family Ptilonorhynchidse. Bower Birds 

Ptilonorhynchus violaceus (Vieillot 1816, Pyrrhocorax) 

Satin Bower Bird 
Scenopoeetes dentirostris (Ramsay 1876, Scenopoeus) 

Tooth-billed Bower Bird 
Ailuroedus crassirostris (Paykull 1810, Laniiis) 

Cat Bird 
Ailuroedus melanotus (Gray 1858, Ptilonorhynchus) 

Spotted Cat Bird 
Chlamydera maculata (Gould 1837, Calodera) 

Spotted Bower Bird 
Alphachlamydera cerviniventris (Gould 1850, Chlamydera) 

Fawn-breasted Bower Bird 
Rogersornis nuchalis (Jardine & Selby 1830, Ptilonorhynchus) 

Great Bower Bird 
Sericulus chrysocephalus (Lewin 1808, Meliphaga) 

Regent Bird 
Prionodura neivtoniana De Vis 1883 

Golden Bower Bird 


Family Paradiseidse. Birds of Paradise 

Ptiloris paradisea Swainson 1825 

Rifle Bird 
CrasfedoyJiora magnifica (Vieillot 1819, Falcinellus) 

Cape York Rifle Bird 
Phonygammus keraudrenii (Lesson & Garnot 1826, Barita) 


Family Corvidae. Crows 

Corvus coronoides Vigors and Horsfield 1827 

Corvus bennetti North 1901 

SmaU- billed Crow 
Corvus cecilce Mathews 1912 

Northern Crow 
Siruthidea cinerea Gould 1837 

Grey Jumper 
Corcorax melanorhamphus (Vieillot 1817, Coracia) 

White-winged Chousfh 


The following birds occur on Lord Howe Island, but not on 
the Austrahan mainland. 

Family Thalassidromidge. Storm-Petrels 

Fregettornis royanus Mathews 1914 

Black Storm- Petrel 
Fregettornis insularis Mathews 1915 

Striped Storm-Petrel 
Fregettornis alisteri Mathews 1915 

AlHed Storm-Petrel q, 
Fregettornis grallarius (Vieillot 181"^ Procellaria) 

White-bellied Storm-Petrel 

Family Procellariidse. Shearwaters or Fulmars 

Pterodroma melanopus (Gmehn 1789, Procellaria) 
Brown-headed Petrel 


Pterodroma neglecta (Schlegel 1863, Procellaria) 
Kermadec Petrel 

Family Sternidse. Terns and Noddies 

Procelsterna cerulea (Bennett 1840, Sterna) 
Little Grey Noddy 

Family Treronidse. Fruit Pigeons 

Raperia godmanm Mathews 1915 

White-throated Pigeon (Extinct) 

Family RaUidse. Rails 

Tricholimnas sylvestris (Sclater 1869, Ocydromus) 

Family GallinuUdse. Galhnules 

Porphyrio alhus (White 1790, Fulica) 

White GaUinule (Extinct) 

Family Platycercidse. Broad-tailed Parrakeets 

Cyanoramphus novcezealandice (Sparrman 1787, Psittacus) 
Green Parrakeet (Extinct) 

Family Muscicapidse. Flycatchers 

Roy igery gone, insularis (Ramsay 1878, Gerygone) 

Family Turdidse. Thrushes 

Planesticus xanthopus (Forster 1844, Turdus) 

Family Zosteropidae. White-eyes 

Nesozosterops strenua (Gould 1855, Zosterops) 

Robust White-eye 
Zosterops tephropleura Gould 1855 

Grey-breasted Silver-eye 

Family Gracuhdse. Glossy Starlings 

Aplonis fuscus Gould 1837 



The following birds occur on Norfolk Island, but not on the 
Australian mainland. 

Family Sternidse. Terns and Noddies 
Procelsterna cerulea (Bennett 1840, Sterna) 

Little Grey Noddy 
Leiicanous alhus (Sparrman 1786, Sterna) 

White Tern 

Family Treronidse. Fruit Pigeons 
Hemiphaga novceseelandice (Gmelin 1789, Columba) 

Pigeon (Extinct) 
Family Platycercidge. Broad-tailed Parrakeets 
Cyanoramphus novcezealandice (Sparrman 1181, Psittacus) 

Green Parrakeet 
Family Nestoridse. Kakas and Keas 
Nestor productus (Gould 1836, Plyctolophus) 

Long- billed Kaka (Extinct) 
Family Eudynamytidae. Koels 
Urodynamis taitensis (Sparrman 1787, Cuculus) 

Long-tailed Koel 

Family Muscicapidse. Flycatchers 
Royigerygone modesta (Pelzeln 1860, Gerygone) 

Pachycephala xanthoprocta Gould 1838 

Diaphoropterus leucopygius (Gould 1838, Symmorphus) 


Family Turdidse. Thrushes 
Planesticus fuliginosus (Latham 1801, Turdus) 

Grey-headed Blackbird 
Family Zosteropidge. White- eyes 
Nesozosterops alhogidaris (Gould 1837, Zoster ops) 

White-breasted White-eye 
Nezozosterops tenuirostris (Gould 1837, Zosterops) 

Slender-billed White-eye 
Family Graculidse. Glossy Starlings 
Aplonis fuscus Gould 1837 



In the preceding List there are a few alterations which 
need explanation. 

Eudyptes schlegeli Finsch 1876 
Macaroni Penguin 
This must be referred to the family Spheniscidas, and not to 
the Aptenodytidse where it appeared, while the vernacular 
name of Eudyptes serresianus Oustalet should be : " YeUow- 
crested Penguin." This must be added, as it will be seen 
from the photograph provided by Hull (Rec. Austr. Mus., 
Vol. XIL, pi. XI., fig. 2, 1918) and description given by Dove 
(Ibis, 1915, p. 87) and reprinted by Hull, p. 73, that the 
specimen there dealt with from Devonport, Tasmania, is 
referable to the above species and does not belong to either 
of the other crested Penguins. It is in immature plumage, 
and when adult the crest shows yellow feathers on the fore- 
head, but in any case this species is larger than the others. 

AdamastoT cinereus (Gmehn 1789) 
Brown Petrel 
Prioflniis was introduced for " cinerea Forst., cequinocticdis 
Edw., etc., and arctica ? " Pr. cinerea Forst. is not P. cinerea 
Gmel., as Bonaparte pointed out when he proposed Adamastor 
(see Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, Vol. XLIIL, pp. 994-996, 
footnotes, 1856). Gray gave cinerea Gmehn as type, and 
this has been followed by most writers, e.g., Amer. U. Check 
List, 3rd ed., p. 54, 1910, but this is incorrect, so we have 
designated cequinoctialis Edw., etc., that is cequinoctialis 
Linne 1758 as type, and Prioflnus will become a synonym 
of Procellaria. 

Hypoleucus perthi Mathews 1912 
Pied Cormorant 
This becomes the species name, as we find the New Zealand 
species H. varius Gmehn 1789 to be quite distinct when fully 
plumaged birds, which are rare, are compared. 

Hcematopus unicolor Forster 1844 
Black Oystercatcher 
This name must be revived, as H. niger Temminck 1820 
proves to be invalid through the prior introduction of Scolopax 


nigra Gmelin, also proposed for a Black Oystercatcher from 

Acanthiza ewingii Gould and 

Acanthiza flaviventris Ashby 
are omitted. Full details will be given in Mathews's Birds 
of Australia. 

Leucocirca leucophrys (Latham 1801) 

Black and White Fantail 
The reason for this alteration will also be found in Mathews's 
Birds of Australia, the part deahng with this species being 
now in the printer's hands. 

Heteractitis brevipes Vieillot 1816 
Grey-rumped Tattler 
We are agreed this is quite a distinct species from H. incanus 
Gmelin, and therefore reinstate it as above. 

Dacelo novceguinece (Herrman 1783, Alcedo) 
This is an unfortunate change, necessitated through the 
acceptance of Herrman's work as appearing earlier than that 
of Boddaert. 

Oreoica gutturalis (Vigors and Horsfield 1827) 
Crested Bell Bird 
This name must be reverted to, as Lewin was anticipated 
in his choice of Turdus cristatus by Pennant twenty years 

Since the above was drawn up, the Auk for July 1920 has 
been received, including the Seventeenth Supplement to the 
American Check List, which shows a number of changes of 
nomenclature still further drawing together towards uniformity 
the names of the birds of the world. Therein is accepted 
the usage of Catharacta, Hydroprogne, Thalasseus, Chlido- 
nias, Pterodroma, Casmerodius, Crocethia, Tringa, Pluvialis, 
Charadrius, Tyto as proposed in Mathews's Check List, and 
all, save Hydi^oprogne and Thalasseus, which are ranked as 
subgeneric only, with the same status. They also accept 
Sula dactylatra for the Masked Gannet. 


The matters at variance are as follows : Moris is used for 
the Gannet which is considered separable from Sula, and they 
do not admit that Moris is the same as Morus. Forster used 
this name following Leach, whom they quote as if a valid 
pubhcation, and in spite of the Opinions of the International 
Commission, and Moris is apparently simply a printer's error 
for Morus. In Leach's MSS. in the British Museum the 
abnormal number of printer's errors is remarkable, and in 
Forster's Catalogue we can read Odogometra, Octygometra and 
Ortygometra, as well as others. Such a matter as this should 
have been considered with all the facts in view. 

Crocethia alba (Pallas) is preferred to Crocethia leucophma 
(Pallas), both specific names being published in Vroeg's 
Catalogue, and this matter requires reconsideration before 
final settlement, but we use C. alba for uniformity. 

They have rejected Heteractitis in favour of Heteroscelus, 
which they determine to be valid, although there is a prior 
Heteroscelis, which is absolutely the same word and simply 
shows an error in transliteration which is amenable to 
emendation according to the Opinions of the International 

They have rejected the Oken names and also those of 
Lepechin, and moreover are not acknowledging those proposed 
by binary authors save those by Brisson. In these items 
we are in accord and soon there will be absolute unanimity, 
the one bar at present being their reluctance to admit the 
British usage of Colymbus for the Divers, but this seems 
merely a matter of adjustment in the near future. A few 
other items wliich do not concern Australians are cleared up, 
but in the Swan names they show again a reluctance to correct 
an error as the type of Cygnus, whether of Zimmermann or 
Bechstein, by tautonymy, is Anas cygnus L. and consequently 
Olor cannot be maintained. 

We are gratified to be able to record so much advancement, 
and there can be little discussion on the subject of nomen- 
clature for many years now, errors being corrected as soon 
as they are detected, and attention paid to systematic 
classification, morphology, ecology and economy. 



By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 

The fame, for good or bad, of an ornithologist depends upon 
publicity, and it is unfortunate that some of the older orni- 
thologists have been overlooked. Similarly an artist may have 
done splendid service but be practically unknown through a 
lack of signature to the work done. 

VV^hen the Watling drawings were received at the British 
Museum the whole were ascribed to that painter because 
they had been furnished to his employer by him, but examina- 
tion has shown that the majority was not drawn by him but 
by one or two assistants whose identity is at present unknown. 
Further, a book of drawings in the Banksian collection in 
the British Museum was also ascribed to Watling by James 
Britten, who wrote (Journ. Botany, Vol. XL., p. 302, 1902) : 
" Apart from its contents (the real Watling book is here 
referred to) the volume is interesting on account of the light 
which it throws upon an entry on p. 253, Vol. I., of Dryander's 
' Catalogue of the Banksian Library ' ; this runs ' Volumen 
fohorum 70, continens figuras animahum et plantarum pictas 
quas in Nova Cambria prope Port Jackson delineavit Edgar 
Thomas Dell.' In Banks's copy the last four words are struck 
out, and a comparison of the volume with the one acquired 
from Mr. Lee shows that it is the work of the same artist. 
Wathng was acquainted with John White (' Surgeon- General 
to the Settlement '), who sent plants to Smith, and published 
in 1790 his ' Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales ' ; 
one or two of Wathng's drawings were executed for White." 

We have recently examined this volume and find the 
paintings are certainly not made by Thomas Wathng, from 
comparison with work signed by that artist.* 

* Note. — -Oiir attention was drawn to this by Mr. H. W. England, in 
charge of the books in the Zoological Department at the British Musenni 
(Natural History) who is well aware of our interest in these paintings, and 
who has always assisted us in connection with oiw examination of the 
drawings, and to whom we here tender our best thanks. 


Some of the paintings were of birds which did not appear 
in the Wathng drawings, but were described by Latham at 
the same time as he worked at the Wathng drawings, from 
drawings in the possession of General Davies. This fact 
induced us to investigate tlie matter from two points- -that 
of the birds credited by Latham to General Davies, and that 
of the artists who had made paintings in the early settlement 
of New South Wales. 

We will deal with the latter item first. In White's Journal 
no mention of artists is made save " the Drawings have been 
copied from nature, by Miss Stone, Mr. Catton, Mr. Nodder, 
and other artists . . . The birds,, etc., from which the draw- 
ings were taken." The artists mentioned were British artists, 
and in addition to those mentioned we find the signatures 
of E. Kennion and — Mortimer. On the title page, however, 
is a httle sketch upon which is engraved " I. White, Esq. 
dehn." and White tells us on p. 107 : " Captain Hunter has 
a pretty turn for drawing." 

As we have not gained much from this, we will pass to 
Hunter's Historical Journal when we find : " From a sketch 
by I. Hunter " and " from a sketch by Gov. King." 

Referring now to Phillip's Voyage, we see on the title page 
" drawn on the spot by Capt. Hunter, Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, 
Dawes, Bradley, Capt. Marshall, etc." Fortunately, the 
charts are signed by W. Bradley, W. Dawes, T. G. Shortland, 
and Captain J. Marshall, while the New Holland Cassowary 
is signed " Lieutenant Watts del." 

We have written "fortunately," as a large number of the 
" Watling " drawings seem to have been drawn by a carto- 
grapher, as they are surrounded by the triple lined border, so 
famihar on charts. Consequently, we may guess that probably 
for amusement the cartographers painted the rare birds which 
the artist Wathng was employed in portraying and perhaps 
others also indulged in this fascinating new pastime. 

The drawings in the book mentioned by Britten are such 
that they are comparable with the supposed cartographers' 
drawings, but not with the paintings made by Watling himself. 
As recorded, they comprise seventy folios, but each side is 


numbered so that the first painting is numbered 1, the second 
3, the third 5, and so on. 

is Myzomela sanguineolenta (Latham 1801, Certhia) 
Neophema pulchella (Shaw and Nodder 1792, 

Chenonetta jubata (Latham 1801, Anas) 
Malurus cyaneus (Gmehn 1789, Motacilla) 
Alcyone azurea (Latham 1801, Alcedo) 
Jj]gintha temporahs (Latham 1801, Fringilla) 
Angroyan cyanopterus (Latham 1801, Loxia) 
Lophoptilotis melanops (Latham 1801, Turdus) 
Nesoptilotis leucotis (Latham 1801, Turdus) 
Ahsterus scapularis (Lichtenstein 1818, Psittacus) 
Malurus cyaneus (Gmelin 1789, Motacilla) S and ? 
Pardalotus punctatus (Shaw and Nodder 1792, 

P*^ra)(^ and $ 
Grallina cyanoleuca (Latham 1801, Corvus) 
Entomyzon cyanotis (Latham 1801, Gr acuta) 
Petroica multicolor (Gmelin 1789, Muscicapa) 
Uroaetus audax (Latham 1801, Vultur) 
Platycercus elegans (Gmelin 1788, Psittacus) 
Sphenura brachyptera (Latham 1801, Turdus) 
Glossopsitta concinna (Shaw and Nodder 1791, 
57 Trichoglossus moluccanus (Gmelin 1788, 

59 Graucalus robustus (Latham 1801, Lanius) 

61 Myzantha melanocephala (Latham 1801, Gracida) 

63 Coleia carunculata (Latham 1790, M crops) 

65 1 Tavistocka guttata (Shaw 1796, Loxia) 

2 Leucocirca leucophrys (Latham 1801, Turdus) 

67 leracidea berigora (Vigors and Horsfield 1827, 

69 Zanda funerea (Shaw and Nodder 1794, Psittacus) 

71 Ixobrychus minutus (Linne 1766, Ardea) 

73 Platycercus eximius (Shaw and Nodder 1792, 





























75 Calyptorhynchus banksii (Latham 1790, 


95 Dromiceius novaehoUandise (Latham 1790, 


97 iEgotheles cristata (White 1790, Caprimulgus) 

119 Cosmaerops ornatus (Latham 1801, Merops) 

121 Eurystomus orientahs (Limie 1766, Coracias) 

124 Indetermmable, signed W.T. (? Watkin Tench.) 

126 Ditto 

137 Ditto 

The drawings on page 7 suggested a possible solution to 
these figures as Fig. 2 was a beautiful painting of a Wood- 
Swallow, and reference to Latham's Second Supplement 
under the name Blue-winged Gr(osbeak), p. 197, we found 
" Inhabits New South Wales ; found at Port Jackson. From 
a drawing by General Davies." We therefore went all 
through this Supplement, picking out the species mentioned 
in connection with General Davies, with the following results : 

p. 75. Frontal Shr(ike). Lanius frontatus Index, 
p. xviii. 

" Inhabits New Holland, and is in the collection of General 


p. 87. Crimson-fronted P(arrot). 

This variety is in the possession of General Davies. 

p. 89. Turcosine P(arrakeet). Psittacus pulchellus 

" One of these, in the collection of General Davies." 

The remarks appear to refer to the figure seen in the book 
above mentioned on the first page. 

p. 129. Black-headed Gr(akle). Gracula melano- 
cephala, p. xxviii. 

" Inhabits Neiv South Wales. I am indebted to General 
Davies for the knowledge of this species, having been brought 
from Port Jackson, by Governor King." 


The figure on page 61 is of this species, but the description 
does not exactly agree, as if this were only the drawing while 
Latham had described from a bird skin or preserved specimen. 

p. 130. Pied Gr(akle). Gracula picata, p. xxix. 
" Inhabits New South Wales, with the last species." 
The figure on page 33 appears to have been the basis of this 
description, it agrees so well. 

p. 130. Blue-eared Gr(akle). Gracula cyanotis, 
p. xxix. 
" Inhabits New Holkmd ; brought from Botany Bay. 
I am obliged to General Davies for the above description." 
On page 43 the figure of this bird is excellent, and the 
description could have been prepared from it. 
p. 150. Wattled B(ee) E(ater). 
" At General Davies' s is one of this species which 
differs. ..." 

The details cited apply fairly well to the painting on p. 63. 

p. 152. Hooded B(ee) E(ater). Merops cucullatus, 
p. xxxiii. 
" Inhabits New Holland. In the collection of General 

The figure on page 61 agrees well, but not exactly, with 
the description of this species. 

p. 155. Variegated B(ee) E(ater). Merops ornatus, 

p. XXXV. 

" This is said to be the inale bird. I met with it in the 
collection of General Davies." 

On page 119 is a splendid painting of this species. 

p. 156*. White-fronted B(ee) E(ater). Merops 
albifrons, p. xxxv. 

" I am obhged to General Davies, for the above descrip- 
tions, having made drawings of them from specimens in the 
possession of Captain King, which were brought from Port 
Jackson, in Neiv South Wales.' 

Unfortunately there is no painting which can be allotted 
to this, as yet, unidentified species, but we include this note 


as it throws light upon the method of receipt and the fact 
of the descriptions being made from, or at the same time as, 
the drawings, and that probably a collection of birds at that 
time included drawings on account of the rarity of the actual 

p. 197. Blue- winged Gr(osbeak). Loxia cyanoptera, 
p. xlvi. 
" Inhabits New South Wales ; found at Port Jackson. 
From a drawing by General Davies." 

The painting on page 7 is the basis of this description, or if 
not, is certainly a copy, or vice versa. Until another series 
of paintings is found we should class these as originals. 

p. 210. White headed F(inch). Fringilla leuco- 
cephala, p. xlviii. 
" Inhabits New South Wales. From the drawings of 
General Davies." 

The same remarks apply to the painting on page 65. 

p. -211. Temporal F(incli). Fringilla temporalis, 

p. xlviii. 

" Several drawings of birds probably allied to this. . . 

For these I am indebted to the drawings of General Davies." 

One of these appears on page 7, and the fact that several are 

referred to above suggests the fact of missing books of pictures 

yet to be traced. 

p. 216. Red-belhed Fl(ycatcher). 
" Is one from Port Jackson, in the drawings of General 
Davies. . . . This came from Port Jackson, and was 
communicated by General Davies.'' 

The paintings on page 45, or a copy, are here referred to, 
so that again we must look for more paintings. 

p. 253. Speckled M(anakin). 
" Inhabits Neiv Holland. I am indebted to the pencil of 
General Davies for these descriptions, taken from specimens 
in the possession of Captain King." 

The pictures on page 31 agree in detail with the remarks 
given at the quotation, so that here again we are compelled 


to consider these paintings as more or less exact copies, if not 
originals, of the remarks. 

p. 371. Black-breasted Cr(ow). Corvusmelanogaster, 

p. XXV. 

" Inhabits Port Jackson." Under China Owl, p. 368, is 
written " for this, and many of the following, I am indebted 
to General Davies." 

This seems to be based on the figure on p. 59, it agrees so 
well, but the figure on p. 121, a good painting of the RoUer, 
does not agree with the description on p. 371 of the Pacific 

p. 372. Azure K(ingfisher). Alcedo azurea, p. xxxii. 
" Inliabits Norfolk Island." 
On page 5 there is an excellent figure of this species, which 
might have been described from it. 

p. 373. White-browecl Thr(ush). Turdus hucophrys, 
p. xlv. 
" Pound at Port Jackson, described from a drawing made 
from a specimen brought from thence by Governor King.'' 

The painting on page 65 showed this previously unidentified 
species to have been based upon the Black and White Fantail. 

p. 373. White-eared Thr(ush). Turdus leucotis, 
p. xliv. 
" This inhabits the same parts as the Black-eyed Thrush, 
and is supposed by some to be the other sex of that bird." 

On page 11 are two paintings, one of this species, the other 
of the Black eyed Thrush, p. 181 {Turdus melanops), and this 
would seem to be the basis of the description of the first named 
and the source of Latham's comment above quoted, from the 
fact of the two being painted together. 

While the facts do not prove, they decidedly suggest, that 
the volume under notice contains figures of birds described 
by Latham as from the drawings of General Davies. It is 
possible that these are copies, or more probably, simultaneous 
paintings from the specimens from which General Davies's 
drawings were made. In any case until other pictures are 
found, these drawings can be regarded as typical paintings of 


the species discussed above. The paintings call to mind some 
of the ones included in the Watling drawings as if they had 
been painted by the same artist. That would negative their 
ascription to General Davies himself, but they could have been 
copied by him. We once saw a painting, signed by John 
Hunter, of the Austrahan Jabiru which recalled others among 
the Watling drawings, but we would hesitate before concluding 
that Hunter had drawn any of the so-called Wathng drawings. 

Further, in the present volume, pages 95 and 97 show 
paintings of the Emu and Owlet Nightjar agreeing absolutely 
with the ones reproduced in White's Journal, but we would 
not consider these had been painted by White without further 

Then on p. 124 is a painting quite unidentifiable, signed 
W. T., which agrees exactly with some of the unidentifiable 
paintings in the Watling series as to workmanship, etc., and 
pp. 126 and 127, though unsigned, are by the same artist and 
are also quite unrecognisable. The only member of the ship's 
companies we have noted with these initials is Watkin Tench, 
but of course this is merely a guess. 

Then who was General Davies ? His name has cropped 
up quite commonly in the above connection, and it will be 
remembered that he apparently received the first Lyre-Bird 
in England, and, moreover, he was so struck by its beauty 
that he described it. Apparently he was no systematist, and 
he got Latham to draw up the description and mayhap select 
the name, so that Latham included it as a last item in his 
work, and due to the slowness in publication of the learned 
Society before which Davies read his account, Latham's name 
was pubUshed first. Further, he also secured the first Emu 
Wren, but did not describe it but allowed Shaw, the Director 
of the British Museum, to do so, who acknowledged " we are 
indebted to General Davies for the above." 

In 1787 Latham had described in the First Supplement, 
p. 59, a var. C of the Blue-beUied Parrot, noting : " This variety 
differs merely in having four or six spots of red tipped with 
yeUow on the scapulars and inner bend of the wing, and the 
blue bounded with reddish at the nape. I observed it among 


the dra-wdngs of Colonel Davies." Mathews has discussed 
this in the Birds of Austraha, as Kerr had named this variety 
Psittacus hcematotus daviesianus. 

However, it may be concluded that General Davies was one 
of the foremost and most enthusiastic of the early ornitho- 
logists, as we find Latham continually referring to General 
Davies in connection with other birds, which he had even 
collected himself as : " This was brought from Quebec, by 
General Davies, in 1790 " occurs more than once, while a 
reference also occurs to Gibraltar. 

We have not yet attempted to work out the hfe-history of 
General Davies, but the preceding remarks will show the 
interest of this old-time ornithologist, who, because he was no 
describer, has suffered neglect so that his name is scarcely 
known. Again, we have no vahd trace of the identity of the 
artists who made these careful paintings of the objects of 
natural history of tliis new country, and yet who failed to 
sign their work. If this memo serves to keep alive the interest 
in these forgotten workers it wiU please us ; and we should 
apologise for stating that this note has not been written for 
our own advertisement, as suggested by a recent critic who 
also stigmatised the drawings, without having seen them, 
as " crude sketches made by a convict." 

Year for year, the paintings are excellent first-class work 
and the artists, whoever they were, had reason to be proud 
of their success in dehneating the objects they attempted. 

We have just remembered that the present scientific name 
of the Gang Gang Cockatoo also stands to the credit of General 
Davies as recorded in Mathews's Birds of Australia, Vol. VI., 
pt. 2, p. 155, 1917, as when Grant S.gured Psittacus fi7nbriatus 
he stated that the plate was reproduced from a design from 
the elegant pencil of Major-General Davies of the Royal 
Artillery, to whom Governor King presented the preserved 



By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 

Since the days of Coues the arrangement of Snipe, Woodcock 
and Sandpipers has been in a state of flux, scarcely any 
authorities being agreed upon the value of the observed 
differences between the species. It is necessary to remember 
that the differences do exist, but the estimates of their worth 
disagreed, according as the valuer was a lumper or a splitter. 
Consequently we see a few genera covering very diverse forms, 
or conversely almost each species raised to generic rank. In 
view of the geographical distribution of the series the latter 
course is recommended, as the former gives rise to much 
incongruity. We have always advocated the study of plumage 
changes, and Mathews has shown how the careful examination 
of eggs in the allied group of Plovers gave valuable assistance. 
We would employ the criticism of egg shells, unhatched young, 
downy young and plumage changes as productive of a stable 
assortment, and conclude that study of the internal characters 
wiU confirm the arrangement in every detail. This has been 
suggested by Lowe, who published the results of an osteological 
study of some members referring to a 

subfamily Eroliinse. Erolia alpina, Erolia minuta, ArquateUa 

maritiyna, Ereunetes pusillus, Ancylochilus subarquatus, 

Calidris arenaria, Hetero'pygia acuminata, Micro- 

palama himantopus, Canutus canutus, Eurynorhynchtis 

pygmcetis and Machetes pugnax 

and to subfamily Tringinse. Tringa ochropus, Tringa solitaria, 

Tfingoides hypoleucos, Tringoides macular ius, Rhyaco- 

philus glareola, Tringa calidris, Tringa flavipes, Tringa 

nehularia and Tringa stagnatilis. 

Lowe added a note that the colour pattern characteristic of 

the downy nestling of the Ruff [Machetes pugnax), as well as 

of the immature and female examples, was undoubtedly 

Eroliine in type, writing : " I refer to this here, as being a 

distinct point to the good in favour of colour pattern as a 

guide or clue to subfamily or generic affinities, borne out as 


it is, in this instance, in tlie most complete and definite way, 
by an appeal to osteological characters." 

We would have written it differently, but with the same 
meaning, viz., that superficial and internal features go hand 
in hand, the former being the more reliable. 

Ridgway, in his excellent Birds of North and Middle 
America, part VIII., concluded : " excellent reasons for the 
recognition of two subfamilies, apart from the Scolopacinse, 
namely, the Eroliinse and Tringinse. Unfortunately Mr. 
Lowe's researches are confined to only part of the genera, and 
he leaves us in ignorance concerning the affinities of Limosa, 
Vetola, Pseudoscolopax, Limnodromus, Catoptrophorus, Hetero- 
scelus, Tryngites, Bartramia, Numenius, Phceopus and Meso- 
scolopax. The first three of these almost certainly belong to 
the Eroliinse, and the two following to the Tringinse, but the 
position of Tryngites, Bartramia, Numenius, Phceopus and 
Mesoscolopax is quite uncertain, and consequently I am not 
able to avail myself of Mr. Lowe's two groups in the construc- 
tion of the above ' key.' which therefore must be understood 
as a purely artificial one. Bostratula and the true Scolopacinae 
also require special investigation, especially the former, which 
doubtless, on account of its many marked peculiarities, 
represents a distinct subfamily, Bostratulince. It is possible 
that if Mr. Lowe had been able to study all these genera when 
his paper was prepared he might have found that his groups, 
Eroliinee and Tringinse, are not so distinct as they appeared 
to be, some of the genera not examined being possibly inter- 
mediate in characters. However this may be, the Scolo- 
pacinse (Woodcocks and true Snipes) seem to form one end of 
the series, the Eroliinse coming between them and the Tringinse. 
. . . The curious genus Bostratida has usually been placed 
with this group (Scolpacinse), but judging from external 
characters alone, almost certainly does not belong here." 

Then under Eroliinse he included Limosa and Vetola only 
tentatively, but still separating these from Numenius, etc. 
which he referred to the Tringinse. 

Errors are apparent in the preceding as Lowe, through 
ignorance of nomenclatural usages and unfamiliar with bird 


names, had used wrongly the names for his genera and species, 
while Ridgway had overlooked Lowe's second paper which 
appeared in the succeeding number of the Ibis, where, deaUng 
with the " living " fossil Ccenocorypha, he had given figures 
and a few notes on Rhynchcea = Rostratula, where he indicated 
that it might be " aberrantly Tringine," but could see nothing 
RaUine in it, nor Erohine, Gallinagine or Rusticohne. The 
last item provides the keynote to this essay as (as hereafter 
shown) Oberholser has reviewed Lowe's grouping and accepted 
the three subfamilies suggested by Lowe, but has altered the 
names to be used in accordance with his own idea of type 
determination of famihes and subfamihes, proposing Canutinse, 
Scolopacinse and Numeniinse, but giving no hmits and even 
questioning the inclusion of Numenius with the Tringa series. 
In the recent Supplement to the A.O.U. Check List Oberholser's 
conclusions have been accepted and the American representa- 
tives cited, so that we have now : 

Canutinse Oberholser = Eroliinse Lowe. Macrorhamphus, 

Micropalama, Tringa, Arquatella, Pisobia, Pelidna, 

Erolia, Eurynorhynchus, Ereunetes, Calidris, Limosa, 

Machetes and Tryngites. 

Scolopacinse Oberholser and Lowe. Scolopax, PMlohela and 

Numeniinse Oberholser = Tringinse Lowe. Glottis, Totanus, 
Helodromas, Rliyacophilus, Catoptrophorus, ~ Heter- 
actitis, Bartramia, Actitis and Numenius. 
These genus names are as used in the Check List, but 
in the Supplement the following changes have been sanc- 
tioned, Macrorhamphus to Limnodromus, Tringa to Canutus, 
Calidris to Crocethia, Helodromas to Tringa and Heter actitis 
to Heteroscelus, while Machetes should have been changed to 

To revert to earlier history, Sharpe in the Handlist admitted 
two subfamihes only, Totaninse and Scolopacinse, the latter 
practically covering the Scolopacinse and Eroliinse of Lowe. 

According to our results a basic error appears in the grouping 
made by Lowe and practically accepted by Oberholser, and 
that is one which was fuUy exposed by Mathews in the Birds 


of Australia, viz., the distinction between the Woodcocks and 
Snipes. Lowe in his second paper practically admitted this, 
but Oberholser overlooked it, and consequently there is still 
need for rearrangement. Superficially the differences are 
well marked and, of course, the internal structure confirms 
the observed items. Reference to the downy young plumage 
mentioned by Lowe shows a clear and easy clue to the arrange- 
ment desired. It seems that a close study of the plumage 
changes from the egg to the breeding adults would practically 
solve all the problems present. Owing to the fact that series 
of eggs and downy young are not yet available, a complete 
and exact arrangement cannot be provided. The present note 
will assist in removing some errors and indicate the means 
of correcting others. 

The downy young of Pelidna (i.e. Erolia Lowe errore) are 
characterised by a pecuharly coloured down which has been 
described as " spangled " with white dots, and we may retain 
this term. 

This spanghng is very distinctive, and is seen in the young 
of the Ruff, Sanderhng, Dunhn, Curlew -Sandpiper, Little 
Stint, Broad-billed Sandpiper, and Knot, of which species the 
Ruff has never recently been lumped in with the remainder 
on account of its size, form and ornament, while the Sander- 
ling has always been marked as generically distinct on 
account of the lack of the hind-toe. However, as is well 
known, this spanghng is a prominent feature of the Snipe, so 
that phylogeneticaUy that must be ranked in the series. We 
have here then a remarkable feature common to a series of 
downy nestlings whose adults are easily and consistently 
regarded as distinct genera. If we believe in evolution at all, 
this series constitutes a natural group, and should be so 
considered whatever value we allot to the group. 

A very distinct style of plumage, showing no spanghng 
but an indistinct striped serial marking, is seen in the downy 
young of the Redshank, Dusky Redshank, Greenshank, 
Wood Sandpiper, Common Sandpiper and Terek Sandpiper. 
These downy nesthngs are so alike that we have not yet 
seen well-marked differences, in the few yet available, to 


separate the species, though the adults are easily named, 
in whatever plumage they may be. We would point out 
that all these seem to pass through the same immature stages, 
though some of the adults differ very appreciably. Con- 
sequently we have here a natural series, and to this series 
belongs the Godwit forms. The Curlews have also young 
of this style, and their relationship with this group is in- 
disputable, while it wiU be remembered that the eggs of the 
Grodwits verj^ closely resemble those of the Curlews. However, 
the item to be dealt with is the status of the Woodcock. In 
external features, as in internal, it disagrees very remarkably 
from aU the others, while its egg coloration is distinct, so 
that we have now to examine the downy nesthng and see 
what this shows. At first sight it is obviously no relation 
to the true Snipes, as Mathews has already decisively proved, 
and the resemblance is to the preceding. It differs in its 
leg formation which is quite unhke that of the Snipe or Red- 
shank series. We must, therefore, relegate the Woodcock to 
a group apart, and then we have to deal with its suggested 
relatives. Mathews discussed these in detail, pointing out 
the features whereby they could be recognised as differing 
in their sources from the superficial features alone. We 
refer to the group Seebohm christened Semi- Woodcocks, and 
which included two distinct series, one related to Snipes, 
the other to the Woodcock. Lowe has somewhat confused 
the issue by using the term Semi- Woodcocks for both series 
indiscriminately ; so that we now propose to restrict the 
name Semi-Woodcocks to those of Rusticoline alhance, and 
coin the name Semi-Snipes for those showing GaUinagine 

We are confronted with the recognition of a fourth sub- 
family or the transference of the GaUinagine forms to the 
Dunlin grouping. We can see superficial features that 
would allow of a subfamily separation of the Snipe from the 
latter, but the pecuhar nesthng seems to compel their asso- 
ciation, and as we have previously intimated, the present 
rearrangement is simply an improvement upon those already 
proposed, but is not regarded as final. 


Now, as to the subfamily names to be used. We cannot 
understand how there can be a type genus of a family when 
we have no basis of priority in group names. We arrange 
and rearrange the genera and species and utilise names of 
different values, but we do not fix types for these groupings, 
nor do we amend the names to suit the groups. There has 
been enough trouble in nomenclatural realms through attempts 
at type fixation of genera, without suggesting similar useless 
research and care in the recognition of higher group names. 
Oberholser has not studied the question deeply or he would 
never have advocated such a matter. Many of the names 
now accepted would need adjustment, so that we have con- 
cluded all names above the rank of genera should be based 
on the oldest genus name in the group. In this way the 
oldest genus is generally the type genus, but we don't know 
how that has been reached. Consequently we arrive at the 
following grouping : 


Subfamily Cahdritinae == Canutinse Oberholser = Eroliinse 

Subfamily Tringinse — Numeniinse Oberholser = Tringinse 


Subfamily Scolopacinse = id., Oberholser and Lowe (partly 

The American genera referable to the first named would be 
as given by Oberholser for Canutinse with the rejection of 
Limosa and the addition of Gallinago. 

To the second, the Numeniinse Oberholser, would he added 
Limosa ; while the last named would comprise Scolopax and 
Philohela only as North American representatives, but as 
extra-limital forms would include Neoscolopax, Coenocorypha, 
and the South American Chubbia and Ho^noscolopax, and 
probably Neospilura and Parascolopax, the last four genera 
having been proposed for Gallinago stricklandi Gray, G. 
imperialis Sclater, Scolopax solitaria Hodgson and Scolopax 
saturata Hodgson respectively. 


The species Gallinago gigantea Temminck and Scolopax 
undulata Boddaert, classed by Seebohm as Semi- Woodcocks, 
may be called Semi-Snipes and classed under the genus 
Xylocota Bonaparte and referred to the neighbourhood of 
Gallinago in the Cahdritinse. It will be interesting to see the 
downy young of aU these species and see how they confirm 
these conclusions. 

It may be useful to reconcile the genera given in Sharpe's 
Handlist with our present arrangement, and nominations as 
now accepted with subdivisions proposed. 

The family Scolopacidse in the first volume of the Hand- 
list (p. 157) was divided into two subfamihes, Totaninse and 
Scolopacinae. To the former was allotted Ntmienius, Meso- 
scolopax, Limosa, Macrorhamphus, Micropalama, Symphemia, 
Totanus, Helodromas, Heteractitis, Tringoides, Terekia, Pseudo- 
glottis, Glottis, Rhyacophilus, Pavoncella, Ba,rtramia and 
Ereunetes; and to the latter (p. 162) Tryngites, xEchmorhynchus.. 
Prosobonia, Calidris, Eurynorhynchus, Limonites, Heteropygia, 
Arquatella,-Ancylochilus, Tringa, Pelidna, Limicola, Gallinago, 
Limnocryptes, Neoscolopax, Scolopax, Philohela, Phegornis and 

We admit all the above save Rostratula which we separate, 
following Mathews, as a separate family Rostratuhdse, and 
we recognise three subfamihes as given above, the Sharpian 
names to be changed being numerous, as follows : 

Macrorhamphus should be Limnodromus, Symphemia should 
be Catoptrophorus, Helodromas must be Tringa, Tringoides 
must be Actitis, Pseudoglottis should be Pseudotota^ius, Pavon- 
cella should be Philomachus, Calidris wiU be Crocethia, 
Limonites and Heteropygia will become Pisobia and Li7nno- 
cinclus, Tringa will be Calidris, Limicola should be Platy- 
rhamphus ; while species classed under Gallimigo will be 
placed in distinct genera in the Scolopacoid series, and other 
subdivisions should be recognised, as Phceopus, Vetola, 
Erythroscelis, Anteliotringa, etc. 

The rejection of Gallinago in favour of Capella is discussed 
in the following article. 



By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 

VV^E have previously called attention to the inestimable value 
of the life-work of C. Davies Sherborn, the Index Animalium, 
and we emphasise this by the title here chosen, in the hope 
that our results will attract other workers to study Sherborn's 
panacea of the systematist. The systematist of the future 
will refer to the Index Animalium on every opportunity, but 
it seems a little cruel that the unexampled labour of Sherborn 
should not be realised during his lifetime. The dreary work 
entailed in the production of this abnormal and enormous 
collation of scientific names does not appear to be understood. 
No honours have been bestowed upon our friend, because he 
does not advertise. Had he been a foreigner, probably many 
Enghsh honours would have been conferred as well as numerous 
local ones. We expect he will be annoyed at this discussion, 
but it is the truth. We have continually referred to his work 
and have indicated errors in various authoritative systematic 
accounts, through lack of reference to the " Index." 

This note is to attract attention to another overlooked bird 
book brought to our notice by Sherborn, during his compilation 
of his second volume. The most remarkable fact in connection 
with this item is its constant quotation by the last generation 
of British ornithologists, since one of them brought forward 
one name used in it, viz., Scolopax coelestis. This name is so 
well known that many of the older school will recognise it, 
yet in the same place names are proposed of more importance. 
As we are not specialists in Palsearctic bird forms we will 
merely note the names proposed in the work, and leave their 
correct application to the study of Palsearctic workers. 

Scolopax coelestis Frenzel, Beschr. der Vogel und ihrer Eier 
in der Gegend um Wittenberg, p. 58 (1801), is cited in Yarrell's 
British Birds, 4th edition, as the basis of Gallinago coelestis 
(Frenzel) used for the Common Snipe. This was due to Newton 
who had acquired a copy of Frenzel's work and noted the 
abo-ve name in it and concluded it was valid and novel. 


Examination of Newton's copy, the only one in Britain 
known to him, by Sherborn, revealed many other unquoted 
names, and he generously allowed us to collate and comment 
upon these, for which kind permission we once more record 
our own best thanks, and add to these the thanks of the suc- 
ceeding generation of systematic ornithologists. The most 
important innovation is in connection with the very name 
quoted by Newton, Frenzel's S. coelestis, as Frenzel adds this 
is also called by authors Capella ccelestis. There can be 
no doubt as to the vahdity of the genus name Capella, as in 
his systematic Index on the Linnean system he indexes Capella 
coelestis. This introduction has never hitherto been recorded, 
and it means the rejection of Gallinago Koch 1816 in favour 
of Capella Frenzel 1801 as the generic name for the true 
Snipes, so we have Capella gallinago, etc. It is fortunate 
that this alteration is noticed now when the Snipe and Sand- 
piper names are undergoing so much reconsideration. 

Another noticeable point is the proposal of Embriza palustris ] 
for a Bunting, which is not the species later named by Savi 
1829, and which must be renamed. As no synonyms are 
known to us, we propose the new name Emberiza compilator 
for Savi's species which wiU be united to either pyrrhuloides, 
schoeniclus or some other species, according to the idiosyncrasy 
of the particular European worker. The generic name for 
these Reed-Buntings seems to be Schoeniclus and the sub- 
generic name for the big-biUed series Pyrrhulorhyncha, but the 
nomenclature of the Buntings is much confused at present, 
the family (!) or subfamily being classed under one genus 
name for convenience (! !). 

The third important item is the proposition of Mota cilia y 
coelebs for the BastardnachtigaU. If this be the same bird as 
called by that name by Brehm and Hartert, it wiU come into 
use, as at present Hartert uses Hippolais icterina (VieiUot 1817) 
for the species, and the name would become Hippolais coelebs 
(Frenzel 1801). 

The title of the book reads Beschreibung/der/Vogel und 
ihrer Eyer/in der/Gegend um Wittenberg /zur Naturgeschichte 
des Churkreises/(by) Lie. Med. J. S. T. Frenzel, Wittenberg, 


1801. The Vorrede is dated October 1801, The birds are 
described in alphabetical order of vernaculars, preceded by a 
synopsis, noting division of birds into six orders — ^Accipitres, 
Picse, Anseres, Grallse, Gallinse and Passeres. Throughout 
the book names are given without authority, and many new 
names are proposed. Why Newton selected for use Prenzel's 
Scolopax ccelestis and did not refer to the others, we cannot 
understand. As before noted, we cannot determine the exact 
application of all the names proposed, but here give the list 
and hope they will be carefully considered at the first oppor- 
tunity by some competent authority. We give the vernaculars, 
but it will be noted these differ from the ones now in use and 
are probably only local names invented by Frenzel himself. 
While on the subject of Palsearctic bird names we might 
point out that Motacilla ^wgr^t6r^5 Temminck 1820 is anticipated 
by Motacilla lugubris Lichtenstein 1819, and the name of the 
British Pied Wagtail must become Motacilla alba yarrellia 
Gould. We will deal in detail with this in a succeeding article. 


Baumklette, kleine 

Certhia pusilla 



Turdus montanus 


Fringilla anceps 



Fringilla pumila 



Motacilla varigata 


Strix stitula (stridula) 



Motacilla staperola 



Scolopax media 


Finke, der gemeine 

Fringilla vulgaris 


Der grosse Fliegenschnapper 

Muscicapa rutila 


Grasemiicke, gemeine 

Motacilla altera 

Braungefleckle Grasemiicke 

Motacilla fusca 

Kleine graue Grasemiicke 

Motacilla minor 

Schwarzliche Grasemiicke 

Motacilla nigricans 

Graue Grasemiicke 

Motacilla media 



Fringilla subcana 


Parus atricapilla 

{To be continued. 


Austral Avian Record 

Is published at irregular intervals, about four times 
per year, in parts of about 24 pages each, and 
often with a coloured Plate ; eight parts form 
a volume. Price per volume 12/- post free. 

The "Austral Avian Record" contains : 

1. Discussions regarding the relationships and ranges of 

species and subspecies of particular genera, especially 
those which will not be dealt with in the immediate 
future in Mathews's " Birds of Australia," or those 
that have been. 

2. Revision of what has been published in the " Birds of 

Australia," when accession of material and new facts 
necessitate such revision. 

3. Description of new forms. 

4. Discussions regarding nomenclature. 

5. Supplements to the " Reference List of the * Birds of 

Australia.' " 

6. Dates of Publication of works about which any doubt 


Australian Agents : — Melbourne, Melville & Mullen 
Ppoppietary Limited ; Sydney, Angus & Robertson 
Limited; Adelaide, E. S. Wigg & Son; Brisbane, 
Watson, Ferguson & Co. Limited ; Launceston, 
Bipchall & Sons; Perth, E. S. Wigg & Son. 

H. F. & G. WITHERBY, 326, High Holborn, W.C.I. 


AusTEAL Avian 


/ X- '■Or- " 

VOL. IV. No. 6. kr^l 

issued in connexion with the 
Austral Avian Museum, Fair Oak, Hants, England 


Subscription per Volume 12/- Net. 

H. F. & G. WITHERBY, 326 High Holborn, London, W.0.1. 

August Ist, 1921. 



Vol IV., No. 6. 

August 1st. 1921. 


Sherborn and the Systematist 

Additions and Corrections to My List of the 
Birds of Australia, 1913, and Check List, 
Part L, 1920 .. .. 135 

Notes of Interest . . . . . . . . . . 139 

Amoropelia . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 


By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 





Linaria saxatilis 



Hec kens pringer 

Moos kolbe 

Motacilla dumetorum 
Scolopax coelestis 
also Capella coelestis 
Anas media fera 


Bastardnac ht igall 

MotaciUa c celebs 



Lanius minor rutilus 



Pica glandaria minor 





Embriza palustris 
Falco palustris 
Parus longicaudatus 



FringiUa cardinalis 


Die Holztaube 

Columba sylvestris 
Parus sylvestris ater 


98 Das rostfarbige Wasserhulin Pulica rubiginosa 
" Braun und dunnschnablichten 

Wasserhuhn Fulica fusca 

99 Biinte Rohrhenne Fulica variegata 

Then on p. 120 is a Lateinische Benennungen der Vogel nach 
Linneischen System wherein these names are indexed, and 
there also appears p. 32 Bramikehlchen Motacilla ruhetta 
and p. 50 Gelbschwarzkehlchen Motacilla rupetra, both of 
which names we had omitted as misprints for rubetra, as sttch 
are not uncommon. 




LIST, PART I., 1920. 

By Gregory M. Mathews. 

Check List, p. 15. 

Zaporina Forster, Pocket Encycl. Nat. Phenom., 1827. 
Type (by monotypy) Z. 'minuta^=Rallus 'parvus Scopoli. 

List, p. 48, and Check List, p. 29. An earlier reference is 
Sterna goulm Reichenbach, Synops. Av. Icon., 1845, 
based on Aves Natat. Longip., Vol. XXII. , f. 829: West 

List, p. 50. Alter the subspecific name to 

Procelsterna cerulea AI.BIVITTA, as Gould's Anmis 
cinereus is preoccupied by (Sterna) cinerea Haldeman 1843 
or Stolida cinerea Neboux 1844, given to a form of the same 

List, p. 51, and Check List, p. 30. Add to synonymy of 
B. novcehoUandice 

LA.RUS erythrorhynchus Burton, Cat. Coll. Mamm. Birds 
Fort Pitt, Chatham, p. 46, (pref. April 1) 1838 : New South 

Larus australis Reichenbach, Synops. Av. Icon., 1845, 
based on pi. 1, lxvb and 1077 : New South Wales. 

List, p. 79, and Check List, p. 50. An earlier reference is 
Platalea melanorhynchos Reichenbach, Synops. Av. 
Icon., 1845, based on pi. lxxxiv., 424 : New South Wales. 

List, p. 86. Check List, p. 54. 

Butor Forster, Pocket Encycl. Nat. Phenom., p. 417, 1827. 
Type (by monotypy) Ardea stellaris Linne. 

List, p. 92, and Check List, p. 58. Add to the synonymy of 
genus Spatula 

Rhynchoplatup Berthold, Naturl. Fam. Thierreieh 
(Latreille), p. 84, 1827, (pref. Aug. 30, 1826.) Type (by 
monotypy) Anas dypeata Linn. 


List, p. 93, and Check List, p. 59. 

The name of the tyj)e of Nyroca sliould be Anas rufa Linne 
1761, not A. nyroca Linne, error for A. nyroca Giildenstadt 

List, p. 107, and Check List, p. 68/9. 
Alter reference to Blagrus to 

Blagrus Gray, Genera Birds, Vol. III., Index p. 48 (Aug.) 
1849, ex Blyth MS. Type (by original designation) Pontomtus 
leucogaster = Falco leucogaster Gmelin. 

List, p. 113, and Check List, p. 73. Add to synonymy of 
Pandion haliaetus 

Pandion hali^etos var. australis Burmeister, Verz. Zool. 
Mus. Halle, p. 24, (pref. March 15) 1850 : new name for 
P. leucoce-phalus Gould. 

List, p. 144, and Check List, p. 96. 

The earliest reference to Hirundolanius reads Buller, Manual 
Birds New Zeal., p. 7, (pref. Jan. 2) 1882, ex Clarke MS. 
Type (by monotypy) H. cmruhus = Eurystomus pacifictis 
subsp. (Latham). 

Add to synonymy of E. o. jjacificus 

Hirundolanius CiERULEUS Buller, ib. : Westport, New 

Zealand (a straggler only.) 

List, p. 169. To the synonymy of Melanodryas cucuUata add 
Saxicola jardinii Vigors and Horsfield, Trans. Liim. Soc. 
(Lond.), Vol. XV., p. 236, Feb. 17, 1827 : New South Wales 
(based on a female). 

List, p. 209. The earliest reference reads 

Galamoherpe australis Lewin's Nat. Hist. Birds New South 
Wales, 1838 (ed. Eyton), Index of Synonyms for plate 18, 
Reed Warbler : Paramatta, New South Wales. 

and revaluate 

Australian subspecies. 


p. 211. Read Poodytes gramineus milligani nom. nov. 
for Megalurus striatus Milligan 1903, not Megalurus ? 
striatus Jerdon, Madras Jouni. Lit. Science, No. 30, p. 169, 
April 1844. 

p. 218. Read Geobasileus chrysorrhous alexanderi 
nom. nov. for Acanthiza pallida Milligan 1903, not AcantJiiza 
pallida "Temm." Finsch, Notes Leyden Mus., Vol. XX., 
p. 134, Sept. 1898. 

p. 229. Add to synonymy of 8tip)ituTus malachurus 
MoTACiLLA fimbriata Wilkcs, Encycl. Londin., Vol. XVI., 
p. 102, 1817, founded on Le VailL, Ois. d'Afr., Vol. III., 
pi. 130, f. 2 : New South Wales. 

p. 286. The type of Myzantha was first designated by Lesson, 
Manuel d'Orn., p. 67, 1828. 

Add to generic synonymy 

Philanthus Lesson Traite d'Orn., p. 402, 1830. Type (by 
present designation) Merops alhijrons Shaw = Latham. 

Add to specific synonymj'^ 

Merops albifrons Latham, Index Ornith. Suppl., p. xxxv., 
(after May 30) 1801 : New South Wales. 
TuRDUS VARius Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist., 1st ed., 
Vol. XIV., p. 378, 1803: " Nouvelle Hollande = New 
South Wales. 


for Mirafra javanica nigrescens Mathews 1912. 

Not Mirafra nigrescens Reichenow, Ornith. Monatsb., p. 39, 

March 1900. 

p. 311. Add to the synonymy of Sericidus chrysocephahis 
Paradisea imperialis Sieber, Isis, 1825, Beylage No. 1 : 
new name for Oriolus regens Lesch. = Q. and G. 

Check List, p. 2. 

For Eudyptes serresianus, etc., read Eudyptes cristatus. 
Yellow-crested Penguin. 

[Aptenodytes crestatus (sic) Miller, Illus. Nat. Hist., pt. ix., 
pi. 49, 1785 : Falkland Islands. Extra-limital.] 


List, p. 152, and Check List, p. 10 L 
To the synonmy of Hirundapus add 

Pallenia Bonaparte Cat. Oiseaux d'Europe (Parzudaki), 
p. 25, (ante Nov. 10) 1856. Type (by monotypy) P. caud- 
acuta Bp, ex Lath. = Hirundo caudacuta Latham. 

List, p. 155, and Check List, p. 103. 
Add to synonymy 

CucuLus PRiONURUS Lichtenstein, Verzeichn. doubl. Mns. 
Berhn, p. 9, (pref. Sept.) 1823 : New South Wales. 



By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredalb. 


In connection with the name Alisterus scajndaris (Lichtenstein) 
Mathews, in the Birds of Austraha, has recorded data provided 
by C. W. Richmond in connection with price Usts issued by the 
Berhn Museum concerning their duphcates. While it would 
have been an easy matter to counsel their rejection, usage has 
continually accepted the names proposed in two of them, more 
accessible and with fuller information than the others, so that 
no consistent plea can be urged against those which have not 
achieved familiarity. The tracts, issued as separates between 
1816-1823, are so rare that we have not yet been able to sees 
copies of them, but we here note that Lists (perhaps identical) 
occur in that accessible Journal, Oken's Isis. They appear, 
however, to have been overlooked, as they appeared in the 
supplementary numbers and in the Litterarischer Anzeiger. 
The first one appears in the Isis 1818 Littr. Anz., col. 1103 et 
seq., the title reading : " Verzeichniss von ausgestopften Sauge- 
thieren und Vogeln, welche aus 12ten October 1818 u. folg. 
Tage im. zoologischen Museum der Konigl. Universitat zu 
Berlin dem Mesitbietenden offentlich verkauft werden sollen." 
The prehminary notice is signed Lichtenstein^ and the following 
list of names have no authorities cited, so that, if any are new, 
they are undoubtedly nomina nuda. In the following year, 
as No. 20 of the Isis 1819 Litt. Anz., there is a " Preis-Ver- 
zeichnisse der Saugethier- und Vogel-Doubletten des Zoolo- 
gischen Museums der Universitat zu Berhn " again signed by 
Lichtenstein. The pages are numbered 77-80, and all the 
names are pure nomina nuda, though a lot of them are followed 
by " N " indicating they are new names, but many appear 
to be only new combinations. The succeeding " No. 21 " 
continues and completes that list, but it is followed by a 
" Preis- Verzeichniss der noch vorrathigen-Doubletten " on 


p. 82, which, unfortunately, inchides lUiger's names and cites 
references vahdating them. It may be recalled that Illiger 
had named many new species in the Berhn Museum, but that 
the descriptions were not pubhshed. Under the custom of 
that age these names were accepted as valid and cited as or 
Illiger. Until quahfied by a description or reference to a 
published figure they are only ranked to-day as nomina nuda. 
In the present place references to published figures are given, 
and consequently such names are vahd, not only as to their 
acceptable status but to their preoccupying later combinations. 
The names noted here are : — 

p. 83. Picus auralentus 111. Charpentier vert dore Azara. 
Picus coronatus 111. Charp. a \ entre rouge Azara Mas. 
Turdus xanthopygos 111. Le VaiU., Ois. d'Afr., tab. 106. 
Turdus superciliaris 111. Le VaiU. , Ois. d'Afr. , tab. 111. 
Motacilla lugubris 111. Le VailL, Ois. d'Afr., tab. 184, f. 1. 

p. 84. Corvus sanguinicollis n. Pic a gorge ensanglantee Azara. 

There is also p. 83, Muscicapa plumbea N. Corvus ampelinus 
111., but probably this is a nomen nudum. 

While aU these names may be synonyms, a complication 
in connection with the correct determination of African bird 
names being hereafter exposed, they may invalidate later 
names as the third one, Motacilla lugubris, undoubtedly does. 
In this instance the discovery is very useful, as for the common 
British Pied Wagtail Temminck's name of Motacilla lugubris 
was in use. The introduction of Temminck's name was in 
such an uncertain state that an element of doubt must 
commonly have been felt as to the justice of its employment. 
Its absolute rejection on undebatable grounds is therefore 
very pleasing, especially as the name to be used for the British 
bird honours one of the most famous of British ornithologists, 
as already noted, but the correct spelling is Motacilla alba 

To the Isis 1821, as Beylage No. 1, appears a " Zweites 
Preisverzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums 
der Konigl. Universitat zu Berlin" by Lichtenstein. In this 
List there is quite a large number of names, and it seems that 


many of the names commonly accepted from the very well 
known 1823 List will date back to 1821. We have not col- 
lated in detail these Lists, but such a work should be under- 
taken by those interested in African and American birds. In 
1823 was published, as a separate work the " Verzeichniss der 
Doubletten des zoologischen Museums . . . nebst Beschreibung 
vieler bieher unbekannter Art en " by Lichtenstein. This is 
very well known, but as noted above many of the names may 
date back to the 1821 List and complications may ensue. 
However, we find that all the names in this well-known work 
have probably not been correctly utilised, and on p. 9 we 
note : " Cuculus jwioriurus 111. Nov. Cambr. austr.," wliich 
has been omitted by Mathews from his synonymy through 

Footnote on p. 24 gives : " F{ringilla) textrix n. Textor \ 
Malimbus Temm.," which appears to be first publication of 
the genus name Textor, but it seems to be a nomen nudum. 

Again, on p. 34 we note : " 394. S. melanoxantha n. (1817), 
Tangara a miroir Temm. et Laug. , PI. col. 36, f. 1, 2. Tan. 
speculifera (1821)." 

The dates appear to refer to the Isis lists above mentioned. 

On p. 76 is described " C(iconia) Abclimii n. Sphenorynclms ^ 
Abdimii Hempr. et Ehren. in litteris." This entry validates 
the genus name Sphenorynclms at this date and antedates 
the introduction of a Sphenorhynchus which was regarded as 
earlier. We have asked our friend Mr. D. A. Bannerman to 
record this in a paper he is publishing in connection with this 

Sometimes a reference to " Lichtenstein 1835 " is noted, 
and recently this was inquired of from Friedlancler's of Berlin, 
who replied that the 1835 edition was simply a reprint of the 
1823 Verzeichniss. There is, however, a small tract, " Verz. 
Saugeth. ii. Vogeln Zool. Mus.," dated 1835, which contains 
nomina nuda only. It is possible that some other editions 
may exist, as there is a smaU 1837 " Verzeichn. samml. neu- 
hoUand Nat." by Lichtenstein which has many new nomina 
nuda, but there is the very well-known 1854 one, which is 
continually referred to. 


Reference may here be made to another " Preis List der 
Vogel aus NeuhoUand " which appeared in the Isis 1825, 
Beylage No. 1. In this three names occur accredited to Sieber 
(the collector) as follows : Psittacus hathurstii Sieber ; this is 
a nomen nudum, and does not appear to have been referred 
to since ; Coluniba laivsonii Sieber ; this is also a nomen 
nudum, but was referred to C. elegans by Wagler as cited in 
Mathews's Check List ; and Paradisea imperialis Sbr. {Oriolus 
rege7is Lesch.). This seems to be a reference to Oriolus 
regens published by Quoy and Gaimard in the same year, and 
Sieber's name may be included in the synonymy of Sericulus 
chrysocephalus (Lewin 1808, Meliphaga). 


RiCHMOTSiD some years ago indicated the existence of the 
genus name, EurhyncJms, a synonym of Probosciger, in Berthold's 
edition of LatreiUe. The recent acquisition of a copy of this 
work suggests the following note, as it does not seem to have 
been previously examined by any systematic ornithologist. 
The title-page shows it to be merely a German translation of 
LatreiUe with additions by Berthold. The additions, however, 
are few in number and provide very little of scientific interest, 
but in half a dozen instances Berthold has added Latin 
equivalents of the vernaculars provided by LatreiUe. The 
citation may be Berthold, Naturl. Eam. Thierreich (LatreiUe) ; 
the title-page is dated 1827, while the preface date is Aug. 30, 

The Latin names noted are : 

p. 66. Gryj)hus (oder Grypaetus : Phsena Sav.)= Griff on, p. 69 
French ed. 

p. 74. Eurhynchus (the species vernacular reference only to 
Psittacus aterrimus)^Eurhynque, p. 76. 

p. 84. Cygnus, Anser {Anser [Oie], Leucopsis (Bernache, Cuv.), 
Anatica {Macreuse, Clangula [Garrot], Eider, 
Millouin, Cuv.), Anas {Bhynchoplatus 
[Souchet], Ehynchoceros [Tadorne] Cuv.). 


This is a translation of Latreille's : 

"Leg. Cygne, Oie (Oie, Bernache, Cuv.), Anatique 
(Macreuse, Garrot, Eider, Millouin, ejusd.), Canard (Souchet, 
Tadorne, ejusd.)." 

Consequently the names Gryphus, Eurhynchus, Leucopsis, 
Anatica, Ehynchoplatus and Rhynchoceros need record, but 
fortunately all are synonyms. It should be noted that Gryphus 
is not Gryphus Oken 1816, while the type of Anatica may be 
determined as the type of Macreuse Cuv., the other names 
giving no trouble. 


As a delightful instance of the carelessness of the past 
generation of systematic ornithologists we call attention to 
an ariicle published in the Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 
December 1867, p. 212 et seq. That article was published 
by J. Cassin, a weU-known ornithologist, and displayed the 
multitude of new names proposed by an Englishman in an 
English Cyclopedia. Cassin made some stinging remarks 
about British ornithologists, but probably never anticipated 
how little they would be regarded. This most important 
article has been entirely ignored by the authors in The 
Catalogue of Birds of the British Museum, and it was pure 
chance "that indicated its existence to the present writers. 
How many changes may still be necessary cannot be estimated, 
as with our present accurate methods of date determination 
probably many of the names determined by Cassin as synonyms 
may have priority. Cassin's results show only one name in 
connection with Australian ornithology, as follows : Motacilla 
fimbriata Wilkes, Ency. Lond., Vol. XVI., p. 102, 1817 : New 
South Wales, founded on Le VaiU. , Ois. d'Afr., Vol. III., pi. 130, 
f . 2, to the synonymy Stipiturus malachurus. We are investiga- 
ting the others, as in the British Museum (Natural History) 
Library there is now a beautiful copy. We have referred to 
a comphcation with regard to African bird nomenclature, and 
this is the book. As instance, Motacilla luguhris "111." Licht. 
1819 is based on Le VaiU., pi. 184, f. 1, and according to 
SundevaU the name of the bird there figured was Dro7nolcea 


ciyierea Bp. ex Vieill. Cassin notes that Motacilla tractrac 
Wilkes, Ency. Lond., Vol. XVI., p. 89, 1817, was based on the 
same plate and is earlier than (Enanthe cinerea Vieillot 1818 
on same plate. Many such instances appear obvious. 


As proposed by Pallas and accepted as of 1811 this name was 
long in use for the rare British Bird commonly known as 
White's Thrush. In 1821 Horsfield used the same combination 
for an allied, but dijfferent, Thrush. It was then found that 
Pallas's name could only be used as dating from 1827, and 
consequently was preoccupied, but a name earlier than that 
date was unearthed. Previously, however, Horsfield's Thrush 
had been renamed T. horsfieldi, but of course when it was 
recorded that Pallas's name was later, a reversion to Horsfield's 
varius became necessary. In the Vogel cler Palaarktischen 
Fauna, heft vi., 1910, Hartert did not make this correction, 
but we believe it has since been revived ; in the same place 
Hartert, p. 643, used Turdus dauma major (Ogawa) ex 
Geocichla major Ogawa 1905, while on p. 647, as a sjaionym of 
T. V. viscivorus, Turdus major Brehm 1831 was included. Such 
action is more confusing than genus splitting, as to the majority 
Oreocinda is an easily recognisable genus from Turdus s. str. 
as typified by viscivorus. In the same place (p. 664) we find 
Turdus torquatus orientalis (Seebohm) ex Merula torquata 
orientalis Seebohm 1888 but there is Turdus orientalis Gmelin, 
Syst. Nat., pt. ii., p. 821, 1789. Recently Hemichelidon 
fuliginosa Hodgson 1845 has been renamed because Hartert 
classed it under Muscicapa as M. sibirica fuliginosa, and there 
was a prior M. fuliginosa Sparrman. This seems somewhat 
ridiculous, but it may prove the best method of attracting 
attention to the absurdity of genus lumping when carried to the 
extreme. The lumping of the various forms of Oreocinda under 
one species name is also unscientific, as the variation in the 
number of tail-feathers should indicate. After this preamble 
we arrive at the item of importance, the existence of a Turdus 
varius anterior to either Pallas " 1811 " or Horsfield 1821, 
namelv of VieiUot 1803. This means the recognition still of 


horsfieldi for the Javan Oreocincla, as Vieillot's T. varius has 
nothing to do with this group. 

In the first edition of the Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., 
Vol. XIV., p. 378, 1803, Vieillot names " Le Merle gris a tete 
noire de la Nouvelle HoUande " Turdus varius. In the second 
edition, the one commonly accessible and usually referred to, 
Vol. XX., p. 264, 1818, the name is given as" Turdus varius 
Lath." and thereby escaped notice. No such name was 
proposed by Latham, and we conclude that VieiUot's name 
must rank as a synonym of Myzantha melanocephala (Latham), 
to which we would add Merofs alhijrons Latham, Suppl. 
Index Ornith., p. xxxv., 1801, as we note a drawing among 
those in the possession of Latham which is so named and 
probably paratypical to be meant for this species. Lesson's 
Philanthus (Traite d'Orn., p. 402, 1830) may be passed into 
this synonymy, the type here selected being Merops albifro7is 
but the generic name is preoccupied. 


The acquisition by the British Museum (Natural History) 
Library, through the ability of Mr. Sherborn, of a beautiful 
and (at present) unique copy of this extremely rare work 
has again completed and simplified the nomenclature of 
the Crested Penguins. We, some years ago, endeavoured to 
elucidate this, and our results were accepted by the Editor of 
the Ibis for publication, but we were not satisfied with the 
permanency of our conclusions, and therefore withdrew the 
paper after its existence had been indicated in an article by 
one of us in the Emu. Just recently we outlined our results 
in the Manual of the Birds of Austraha and now almost 
immediately a renomination becomes necessary. This time 
we feel on a surer basis and hope for a little permanency to 
the following account. 

Forster, in preparing the first Monograph of Penguins, 
introduced as a new species Aptenodytes chrysocome. He first 
stated it had been killed in Tasmania and his son had made 
a painting of the specimen. Another specimen from the 
Falkland Islands he saw in London and commissioned J. F. 


Miller to paint this example. Miller's engraving was used to 
illustrate the species. When he technically described his new 
species, Forster gave as localities " Van Diemen's Land and the 
Falkland Islands," and in his description included Bougain- 
ville's account of Falkland Island specimens. Reference to 
the British Museum (Natural History) Library, where George 
Forster's drawings are preserved, showed that G. Forster had 
only made a rough joencil sketch which only showed the 
character of the crest. That is why J. R. Forster commissioned 
J. F. Miller to make a painting of the London specimen from 
the Falkland Islands. The pencil drawing of the Tasmanian 
specimen shows it to belong to the species known as " pachy- 
rhynchus," while the Falkland Island painting is of the 
" chrysocome auct. ' style, while the description includes the 
characteristics of a distinct Falkland Island species, known 
as " chrysolophus." Under these circumstances we considered 
it the wisest course to dismiss " chrysocome " Forster as too 
much of a mixture to be safely used. Since then A. F. B. 
Hull, in the Rec. Austr. Mus., Vol. XII., No. 6, pp. 71-80, 
pis. X. and xi., September 23, 1918, has discussed the same 
item and has agreed " that Forster's Aptenodijtes chrysocome 
is a composite, founded on a dried skin taken in Tasmania, 
and another, bought in London, said to have been brought 
from the Falkland Islands." He did not notice the com- 
plication of " pachyrhynchus " and " chrysolophus,'' or he 
might have agreed with our decision to dismiss the name 

The new item we have to deal with is the independent 
publication by J. F. Miller of the painting he made from the 
Falkland Island specimen under the name Aptenodytes crestata, 
giving the locality as Falkland Islands. This figure has always 
been recognised as "chrysocome'' auct., so that we conclude 
Miller's name would be available for that bird. We had used 
the rather uncertain name serresianus, so that we are glad to 
get a little certainty, and therefore advocate the usage, for the 
smaller Crested Penguin, of Eudyptes cristatus Miller, the type 
locality being definitely the Falkland Islands. The racial 
names would then read : — 


Eudyptes cristatiis cristatus (Miller 1785). Falkland Islands. 
Eudyptes cristatus serresianus (Oustalet 1878). Tierra del 

Eudyptes cristatus moseleyi Math. & Ire. 1921. Tristan 

d'Acunlia Group. 
Eudyptes cristatus interjectus Math. & Ire, 1921. Kerguelen 

Eudyptes cristatus filholi Hutton 1879. Campbell Island and 

? Macquarie Island. 

This is not the final word on this subject, but we hope it 
will assist in the simplification of this intricate matter. 


Blyth drew up his Catalogue, had several prints made and 
distributed them among the leading European ornithologists 
for correction and advice. These proof sheets were sent 
out in 1849 and the corrected work was not published until 
after June 1852. In the three years intervening some of the 
new names proposed by Blyth in those proof sheets may 
have been regularly introduced into literature by his corre- 
spondents, and we have here a case where Gray cited some 
apparently from that source. Thus in the Index of Generic 
Names in the Genera of Birds, Vol. III., we note two. The 
preface to the work is dated August 20th, 1849, with a P.S. 
by Mitchell signed August 29th, 1849, and we conclude the 
Index would come out with that. In the Index, p. 48, is 
included "Blagrus^" p. 18. The footnote reads " ^ Blyth 
1849. The type is Pontoaetus leucogaster," and on p. 55 
" Pseudastur,^^ p. 12," the footnote ^'^ being "Blyth (1849). 
The type is Buteo poecilonotus." 


Gould in 1837 described two Australian birds from the 
collection at Fort Pitt, Chatham, viz., Anthochcera lunulata 
and Eoysaltria griseogularis, and the whereabouts of these 
specimens are unknown, if existent. It has only recently 
come to our notice that there was printed a " Catalogue of the 
Collection of Mammals and Birds at Fort Pitt, Chatham." 


This was published in 1838, the preface being dated April I, 
1838, and the author was Edward Burton. There are for- 
tunately few innovations, and the namies given by Gould 
above quoted are not included. Three names in connection 
with Australian ornithology need record. The first is on 
p. 34, " Chalcites parvirostris Gould, Swan River." We have 
never seen this name quoted and its alliance is problematical, 
as the above is the whole quotation. On p. 13 appears 
" Petroica monticola Swains., Swan River." This is also a 
nude name and its identity is unknown, but Parker in one of 
his delightful osteological studies used this name, and of course 
his results are useless to the S3^stematist until the identity of 
the bones be determined. On p. 46 Larus erythrorhynchus 
Lath, for the Crimson-biUed Gull Lath., New South Wales. 
This name we have already included in the synonymy of 
L. novcehollandice Stephens based on the same source. Two 
extra-limital names need record, for on p. 23 Burton proposed 
Fringilla xantliocollis nom. nov. for F. fiavicollis Franklin 
preoccupied. This seems to be the earliest correction of 
Franklin's name and will be useful. On p. 29 Trochilus 
clavigula Lath, for the Bright-throated Humming Bird 
Latham from Trinidad is introduced, but this name is probably 
only a synon3''m. It will be noted that Burton translated the 
Lathamian vernaculars in two cases, attributing the Latin 
equivalents to Latham. Such names are a co^.stant source 
of danger to systematic ornithology , as only specialists with 
a very complete knowledge of synonymy are able to note 


The names given to birds in one of the essays in this work 
appear to have been overlooked by sj^stematic ornithologists. 
Sherborn and Richmond are the workers we have to thank 
for the opportunity of correcting still another name in connec- 
tion with Austral-Neozelanic birds. The three parts appear 
to have been issued on February 1842, December 1843, and 
January 1844. In the second number, on p. 25, Haldemann 
provides Latin names for a series of birds described under 


vernaculars only by Neboux in the Rev. Zoo4., 1840, p. 289. 
The names read as follows : 

Columba tahitina for No. 2 = Colombe de Taiti from Taiti. 

gallapagina 3 — Cohimbi-Galline des Gallapagos. 

— forcipata 4 = Mouette a queue fourchue 

from Monterey. 
nebui 5 = Geai de San Bias from San 


gallapaginus 7 = Tisserin des Gallapagos. 

Sterna cinerea 8 = Sterne cendre (S. G. Noddi) 

from the North Pacific 


The Atlas to the Voyage of the Venus appeared later and 
was succeeded by the letterpress, the birds being technically 
described and arra^nged by Prevost and Des Murs. These 
ornithologists recognised the names to be used (ignorant of 
Haldemann's " contribution ") as : 

2. Kurukuru taitensis. 

3. Columbi-gallina gallapogoensis Neboux. 

4. Lams jurcatus Neboux. 

5. Pica sanhlasiana Lafresnaye 1842. 

7. Cactornis scandens Gould 1837. 

8. Stolida cinerea Neboux. 

The last ^i^med is the one that intervenes in Austral 
literature, as it refers to a^ie Little Grey Noddy. The Austra- 
lian form was named by Gould Anous cinereus, in the Proc. 
Zool. Soc. (Lond.), 1845, p. 104, February 1846, and this had 
apparent priority over the name Stolida cinerea " Neboux," 
Prevost and Des Murs 1849. The proposal by Ilaldemann is 
earUer than Gould's name and consequently invalidates it. In 
1856 Bonaparte proposed for the Australian bird Procelsterna 
albivitta, as he argued that Gould's name was unavailable 
through the prior introduction of the v^ernacular by Neboux. 
This was incorrect, but now Bonaparte's name becomes 
valid through Haldemann's interference. Haldemann's name 
(Larus) forcipata may be used for the Galapagos Fork-tailed 
Gull, which has alwa,ys been known by Neboux's name of 


furcatus. American literature credits this to the Voy. Venus 
Zool. Atlas, pi. 10, 1842, where the Latin name occurs, but we 
have not traced the date of publication of these plates. 

In the Bibliographie de la France for November 30, 1844, 
under No. 6011, is a note which states " et il doit y avoir 
quinze livraisons de planches pour la Zoologie, dont cinq 
paraissient," but nothing is said as to the contents. If it 
be true that the plates were published in 1842, then Gould's 
name has all along been incorrectly used, as Stolida cinerea 
appears on plate 9, but Neboux's name would not become 
valid, as Lafresnaye's name of tereticollis appeared in 1841. 

In the Bericht. Naturg. Vogel. Jahres 1844 (Wiegmann's 
Archiv. Naturg.), appears the following: " Der zoologische 
Atlas von Du Petit Thouors voy. autour du Monde sur la 
Fregatte Venus enthalt bis jetzt im seinen 6 Lieferungen 
von Vogeln folgende Abbildungen ; 1, Lieferung . . . Stolida 
cinerea, tab. 9. 2, Lieferung, Larus fucatus, tab. 10." 

Consequently, whatever be the fate of Larus furcatus there 
can be no doubt about the rejection of Gould's Anous cinereus. 


In the Consp. Gen. Av., Vol. I., p. 249 (June) 1850, Bona- 
parte included " A{nthus) grayi Bp. {Alauda novcezelandice. 
var. j3 Lath.) Portlock's Voy. t. in p. 38 ex Oceania. Minor." 
Through a mistake Ihis name was included by us in the 
synonymy of Anthus novceseelandice (Gmelin), but upon 
recently rechecking this item we found that Portlock's plate 
was of the Falkland Island Pipit and a good description was 
given, and then it seemed to be a variety of the New Zealand 
Lark. Apparently it was Latham's error, which has never 
been investigated before, as he erroneously gave the locality 
as New Zealand. Buller and other writers have elaborated 
this with fiction, adding Queen Charlotte's Sound as the type 
locality and Forster as the describer of the form which Bona- 
parte named, whereas the item quoted above is the sole 
information and Port lock does not mention Forster nor Queen 
Charlotte's Sound. Bonaparte's name may invalidate Anthus 


phillipsi Brooks, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, Vol. VI., p. 26, 
June 28, 1916, named from the Falkland Islands. 


We find this genus name to be first recorded by BuUer in 
his Manual Birds of New Zealand, p. 7, (pref. January 2) 
1882, where he reports that Hirundolanius cceruleus Clarke, 
a new species described at a meeting of the Westport Philo- 
sophical Society, was simply a specimen of the Australian 
Eurystomus pacificus. Clarke's paper was therefore apparently 
suppressed, as it was never published. 


This genus name does not appear to have been noted pre- 
viously. It is proposed by R. Tobias, Abh. nat. Ges. Gorlitz, 
Vol. IV., pt. I., p. 60, 1844, for Hoplopterus spinosus in an 
article reviewing a paper by Lindermayer on Greek birds 
published in the Isis, 1843, col. 353. 


Probably no author has served up so much trouble as the 
one here named. It must be admitted that he was a great 
ornithologist, but his procedure does not endear him to the 
present-day systematist. His multitudinous works are replete 
with valid generic groups and his generosity is credited with 
allowing fellow ornithologists to publish his gifts. Whether 
this is correct or not cannot be determined, but we present 
a case where such is not recognised. When Mathews, some 
years ago now, discussed the genus name Ballina, the pubh- 
cation was indeterminable exactly and it was surmised that 
probably it was MS. at Gray's citation. Through Sherborn's 
investigations, undertaken since that time, recovery of the 
place of publication has been made and we here give some 

A tract, similar to the others he provided, entitled 
" Synopsis Aviuipi Iconibus coloratis hucusque rite cognitarum 
specierum," illustrated, was issued, according to Sherborn, 


with Wiegmann's Archiv. in 1845 and therein appear Rallina 
and Corethrura. 

A long list of species is attached to the former, of which 
the first is fasciata, the species named as type by Gray in 
1846, so that Mathews's conclusions remain unaffected. Three 
species are included under Corethrura : elegans, dimidiata and 

Probably some other species names need consideration 
from this place, the ones referring to Australian birds being : — 

Sterna gouldii, based on fig. 829. 

Larus australis, plate i., Lxvb, 1077. 

Platalea melanorhynchos , lxxxiv, 424 ; and possibly 


Anarhynchus alhifrons also occurs for the first time. 


When we wrote up Boddaert's Tabl. Planch. Enlum. we drew 
attention in the last paragraph to such hidden names as 
Fringilla fusca Linn, when no such name had been proposed 
by Linne. Referring to the book recently, we noted an in- 
stance of such a hidden name that necessitates an alteration, 
as follows : — ■ 

"p. 12, pi. 202. 1, Fringilla canariensis Linn. Gen. 
112, 23." 

Linne did not use the above name, but some years later 
Vieillot proposed the Boddaertian name for quite a different 
species and Vieillot 's name is at present in use as Fringilla 
coelebs canariensis. This must now be discarded, and the 
Canary Island Finch be known as Fringilla coelebs tintillon 
Webb Berthelot and Mociuin Tandon, from Hartert's 


As we have been appointed to the Committee to deal with 
the Birds of the British Islands, apparently for our ability to 
deal with nomenclatural troubles, it has seemed necessary to 
scan the Official List as to corrections more or less apparent 


to the practised eye. The subtle errors we do not profess to 
discuss at this opportunity, but simply put forward matters 
apparently requiring adjustment. We take this course of 
publicity as the field is more or less novel to us, and extra 
criticism may assist before the final discussion as to the 
validity of these matters. 

Anas rufa Linne 1761. 

In the second edition of the Fauna Suecica (pref. date 
July 28), 1761, is a Faunula Suecica which gives binomial 
names for the species treated in the work, with citations 
referring to first edition of the Fauna Suecica, thus — 

Under the genus Anas is quoted : 

133. obscura, 110. 

134. rufa, 112. 

Upon reference to page 47 we find No. 133 fully described 
with a reference to No. 110 of the first edition, and also No. 134 
with a reference to No. 112 of the first edition. The latter is 
the one here discussed and the data reads : 

" No. 134. Anas rufa, rostro pedibusque cinereis. Fn. 
112 t Rudb. pict. 

Habitat in fluviis rarior, nee mihi unquam obvia." 

This proposition does not seem to have been seriously 
considered, as Gmelin (Syst. Nat., p. 528, 1789) under his 
Anas ferrttginea records "Anas rutila Fn. suec, n. 134." It 
has also otherwise been regarded as synonymous with this 
species, but such a conclusion necessitates its acceptance as 
the species name for the Duck now known as Nyroca nyroca 
(Gueldenstadt 1769), and which would therefore have to be 

Nyroca rufa (Linne 1761) 

Scolopax minima Briinnich 1764. 

The neglect of tliis name has puzzled us considerably. 
As a synonym of the Jack Snipe, L. gallinula (Linne 1766) 
has been commonly and continually cited since the days of 
Gmelin (1789, p. 662) Briinn. orn. n. 163. Briinnich, however. 


provided for his No. 163 the above name (p. 49) and this is 
two years earUer than Linne's name. Consequently, on the 
data, the name of the Jack Snipe must be Lymnocryptes 
minima (Briinnich 1764) and not L. gallinula (Linne 1766) as 
commonly accepted by the best ornithologists. 

Phoenicopterus {ruber) antiquorum Temminck. 

When the Brit. Orn. Union's List was prepared it was 
noted that the name of the Flamingo needed consideration, 
and as Pallas's name could not date from 1811 but should 
be postdated to 1827, Temminck's name of P. antiquorum of 
1820 would come into use. Specific value was given to the 
form and P. antiquorum Temminck 1820 was used. 

Hartert, in his Vogel Palaarktischen Fauna, heft x. , 
p. 1266, March 1920, has used the same name, but has called 
the bird P. ruber antiquorum Temminck 1820. His first 
synonym is, however, Phoenicopterus major Dumont, Diet. Sci. 
Nat., XVII., p. 96, 1820, so that criticism was demanded. 
Though the exact dates of both pubhcations had been worked 
out and pubhshed (in order to meet such cases) by Mathews 
no note was taken. As the works in question were received 
by the French BibUotheque on July 22 and October 20 the 
same year, the facts appear simple. Dumont's work was 
received on the earUer date and his name has priority, but it 
does not refer to the European fonn. 

In the same heft, p. 1238, Hartert has used Egretta alba 
modesta (Gray) for the Indian- Mala j^an-Austrahan Great White 

He admits, however, that the measurements do not 
agree and that the type appears to be missing; we are 
not accepting this conclusion and do not know why he 
selected Gray's name, although we now find that it has 
priority, but have not seen any published account of the 

The Bernacle Goose. 

Previous to reference to Hartert's Vogel Palaarktischen 
Fauna we had made this note, but write it thus : In lieft x., 


p. 1296, Hartert has used Branta leucoiisis (Bechstein 1803) 
and as a synonym quoted " ? Anas Irota MuUer, Zool. Dan. 
Prodr., p. 14 1776." In the Zool. Dan. Prodr. (pref. 
March 31), 1776, Muller gave (p. 14) "A{nas) hrota 
Isl. R. 667." 

The reference is to " Eg Olaffens og B. Povelsens Reise 
grennen Island Soroe, 1772," and we there found an account 
of a goose called in England the Bernacle Goose and a fairly 
good description is given which should be sufficient for any 
one studying Palsearctic Geese to decide its identity. Con- 
sequently, if the bird described be the Bernacle Goose, the 
name would become Bernicla hrota (Muller 1776). 

The Iceland Gull. 

As the scientific name for this species Larus leuco'pterus 
Faber 1822 has been used for some years past. In the 
B.O.U. List Larus glaitcus was used for the Glaucous Gull, 
but the Americans had discarded the latter for L. hyperboreus 
without discovering that its aMy was also in trouble. 
Consequently, in the B.O.U. List two alterations seem 
necessary, viz. : — 

Larus hyperboreus for Larus glaucus, and 
Larus glaucoides for Larus leucopterus. 

This reads so easily that the amount of labour spent on 
such an item cannot be reahsed. We might take up some 
pages in detaihng the research necessary to epitomise the 
result so neatly. Also we have gained not a httle knowledge 
of the birds in the pursuit of the bird names through varied 
books, and also quite a little regarding the history of the 
species named. 

First, Larus leucopterus is used as of Faber 1822 and 
the book cited was published in that year. Ridgway, 
however, noted that this was not Larus leucopterus Vieillot, 
Tabl. Ency. Method , Vol. L, p. 346, 1823. It is now well 
known that the Encycl. Method, was published in parts, 
and the following data has been published by Woodward 
and Sherborn, 


I. and II., pp. 321-528. Ackn'd B.F. Jan. 6, 1821. 
II., 529-848. July 6, 1822. 

III., 849-1460. July 26, 1823. 

Consequently Vieillot's name Larus leucopterus has priority 
and it prohibits the usage of the later name by Faber. 
VieiUot's name refers to the Glaucous GuU, not the Iceland 
Gull. Somewhere about the same time Temminck noted the 
distinctions, as did Edmondston in Britain. In the Mem. 
Werner Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. IV., pt. i., p. 185, May 1822, the 
latter introduced Larus islandicus for a new Gull, which proved 
to be the Glaucous Gull, but on p. 506 of the same volume, 
published in 1823, he used it for the Iceland Gull and it was 
so used for a little time by British ornithologists. In the Isis, 
1822, heft v., col. 562, Boie included " glaucoides Temm. 
leucopterus Faber," wliile Meyer in the Taschenb. deutsche 
Vogel Zusatze, Vol. III., p. 197, also published in 1822 and the 
preface dated April, included " Larus glaucoides Temm." and 
gave a full description. Two or three names were later added, 
but glaucoides Meyer ex Temm. MS." seems to be the best 

It may be noted that there is a Larus glaucodes Meyen, 
Nov. Act. Acad. Cses. Leop. Car., Vol. XVI., Suppl., p. 115, 
1834, which is in use for another Gull. The difference between 
glaucodes and glaucoides is slight, and whereas the first ma}^ 
be from glaucus, the colour above, the latter appears to be 
from glaucus, as referring to the Gull, a distinction too subtle 
for general usage. 

An extraordinary result of the preceding inquiry is the 
discovery of an error in the American Check List. That List, 
through the co-operation of the best ornithologists, is a fine 
production and little complaint can be made in any direction, 
consequently the detection of a slip is a notable item. On 
p. 40 of the third edition we find " Larus jranklini Richardson, 
Fauna Bor. Am., II., p. 424, pi. 71, 1831 = 1832." 

This is continued in Ridgway's Birds N. & Mid-America, 
p. 641, as Chroicocephalus franklinii (Swainson and Richardson) 
1831," the same reference being given. As a synonym is 
Larus pipixcan Wagier, Isis, heft 5, 1831, col. 515, Mexico." 


As it is accepted that the Fauna Bor. Am. was not 
published until February 1832, while the Isis, col. 515 was in 
heft 5, the May 1831 number, the latter name has priority. 

Again, in Die Vogel der Palaarktischen Fauna, hefte xiii. 
and XIV., just published, on p. 1738, Larus gelastes Keys, and 
Bias, is used, with the following synonymy : — 

Larus gelastes Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelt Eur., 
p. xcv., 242, 1840. 

Larus leucocephalus, id., ih. 

Larus genei Breme, Rev. Zool., annee 1839, p. 321, 1840. 

Larus tenuirostris Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2 ed. , tv., 

p. 478, 1840. 
Xema lamhruschinii Bonaparte, Icpnogr. Faun. Ital., 

fol. 135, 135*, 1840. 

Such a chronology needs revision, as the exact dates of 
pubhcation are generally now ascertainable with a Uttle 
trouble, many of them having been published recently. 

Thus we know that the fourth volume of Temminck's 
Manuel was acknowledged in the B.F. for Dec. 7, 1839, and 
moreover reviewed in the Revue Zool., 1839, for December, 
and Larus tenuirostris is mentioned in that review. Larus 
genei was published in the November number of the same 
Revue, and Hartert's contention that the Revue was published 
yearly is easily disproved by the acknowledgment of the 
receipt of the numbers as they appeared in the Comptes 
Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, where in the Bulletin bibliographique 
of the seance of Dec. 2, 1839, the part (No. 11) containing 
Larus genei is recorded. As the preface date of Keyserling 
and Blasius's work is October 1839, and the only review so 
far noted is April 1840, and also the title-page is dated 1840, 
priority seems to belong to L. genei. 

It is possible also that Bonaparte's name appeared in 1839 
as it is quoted by Durazzo in the Uccelli Liguri, published 
in 1840. 

In the same heft Hartert, p. 1732, recognises Larus canus 
major Midd. 1853, based on L. canus var. major, but on p. 1723 
had cited Laroides major Brehm 1831 as a synonym of 


L. argentatus Pontopp. The latter name, of course, is pre- 
occupied in Hartert's usage. We may note that we have seen 
a very large Common Gull procured in Britain which may 
have to be considered in connection with this race. 

Sitta affinis Blyth. 

In the Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal for the year 1846, p. 289, 
Blyth named the British Nuthatch, Sitta affinis. This was 
definitely stated after pointing out the differences between the 
British and Swedish examples. Over sixty years afterward, 
this name having been ignored or overlooked, Hartert named 
the British bird Sitta casia hritannica, and this name has been 
used by those workers recognising the British race. Of course, 
now it has been recognised, Blyth's name, Sitta ccesia affinis, 
must be used as we do not find it to be preoccupied. 

Some Lark Names. 

In the B.O.U. List for the Short-toed Lark, Calandrella 
brachydactyla (Leisler 1812) is used, and for the White-winged 
Lark, Melanocorypha sihirica (Gmelin 1789) is maintained. 
While the latter must be altered, it is probable that the former 
also needs rectification. The facts with regard to the latter 
are simple. In 1786 Sparrman figured the Black Lark in the 
Mus. Carlson, pi. xix., under the name Tanagra sihirica ; 
some years previously Forster had named the same species 
Alauda yeltoniensis 1768, consequently Sparrman's name 
became a homonym. In 1789 Gmelin appUed the name 
Alauda sihirica to the White- winged Lark and this name has 
been recently used. It is, however, invahdated by Sparrman's 
proposal, as the two species are strictly congeneric. Reversion 
to Pallas's name leucoptera, which agrees with the vernacular, 
seems to be necessary, and the name Melanocorypha leucoptera 
(Pallas 1827, Alauda) should be resumed. 

In the case of the Short-toed Lark, Vieillot pointed out 
over one hundred years ago that Alauda fringillaria Hermann, 
Obs. Zool., p. 201, 1804, referred to this species. The name 
has priority, so that if the identification be correct, as it 
seems to be, the name must become Calandrella fringillaria 
(Hermann 1804, Alauda). 


In connection with Calandrella another correction must 
be made. Hartert, in the Vogel der Palaarktischen Fauna, 
heft. II., p. 217, 1904, called a Canary Island Lark Calandrella 
minor rufescens (Vieill.) ex Tabl. Enc. et Meth. , i., p. 322, 1820 : 
Teneriffe. In that place a reference is given to an earher 
description in the Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., Vol. 28, 
p. 516, but the description is not there. It appears however 
on the page cited in the succeeding volume (No. 29), wliich 
was published in 1819. Consequently, the earliest reference is 
Alauda rufescens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed.. 
Vol. XXIX., p. 516, 1819 : Teneriffe ; but this is the point to 
be emphasised, viz., that this is the earhest name for the 
species as Calandritis ininor was not named by Cabanis until 
over thirty years afterward. Moreover, we find that in the 
Compl. de Buff., Vol. VIII., p. 144, Lesson used Alauda tigrina. 
Gal. de Paris for Alauda rufescens Vieill., Encycl., t.l, p. 322. 
In his Appendix B to Vol. VII. Birds of Austraha, giving 
Dates of Ornithological Works, an article reprinted and revised 
in this periodical, Mathews wrote that the exact dates of this 
work were not known to him. They are as follows : — 

Compl. de Buffon, Vol. VII. Ackn'd B.F. Nov. 26, 1836. 

VIII. June 3, 1837. 

' Suppl. Vol. IX. - Dec. 9, 1837. 

2nd edn. Livr. 1 & 2 April 7, 1838. 

Last livr June 1, 1839. 

Descr. Mamm. et Ois. April 24,1847. 

Accepting Hartert's association, the species name wiU be 
Calendrella rufescens (Vieillot 1819, Alauda), and the subspecies 
will read : G. rufescens rufescens, volatzeki, baetica, minor, 
heinei, letioophoea , seebohmi, persica, cheleensis, kukunoorensis, 
etc., etc. 

(Enanihe deserti. 

The Desert Wheatear, a rare visitor, has been separated 
into two forms, the western and eastern ones, the former being 
called (E. d. deserti (Temm. and Laug. 1825) from Egypt, the 
latter, (E. d. alhifrons (Brandt 1844) from W. Siberia. The 


correct reference to Brandt's name is Saxicola albifrons Brandt, 
Bull. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., Vol. II., 
Nos. 9-10, p. 139, October 9, 1843, and there was previously 
proposed a Saxicola albifrons by Riippell, Neue Wirbelth 
Abyssin., pt. 10, p. 78, 1837. Only an expert in Palsearctic 
forms can decide whether these refer to the same or 
different birds ; if they be the same, the reference only needs 
adjustment ; if they differ, then Blyth's name of (EnoMthe 
deserti atrogularis must be revived. 

Pallas 's Names. 

In the Reise Russ. Reichs., Vol. III., 1776, p. 186, Pallas 
notes some birds, and adds a footnote : " Es waren Turdus 
ruficollis und alpinus, Motaxilla cyanura, Emberiza minutai 
rustica, chrysocilla und spodocephala, Anhang Num., 9, 10, 20, 
21, 24, 25." 

Reference to the Anhang shows discrepancy in nomination, 
as follows: No. 9, p. 694, is Turdus ruficollis, but No. 11 
(apparently an error in writing 10) is Turdus sibiricus ; No. 20, 
p. 697, is Emberiza pusilla ; No. 21, p. 698, is Emberiza rustica, 
but Nos. 24 and 25 are Emberiza spodocephala and chrysophrys. 

Whether the earlier note can have any effect on nomen- 
clature is a debatable point, the reference to the Anhang 
being the critical item. 

The editor of the French edition, pubhshed a year or two 
later, recognised this, and has headed the descriptions with 
attention drawn to the two names, thus " Emberiza pusilla 
an minuta." Consideration of the first printed names seems 


In 1817 Thomas Forster published A Synoptical Catalogue 
of British Birds which is fairly well known, though Hartert 
recently has omitted reference to it in his Vogel der Palaark- 
tischen Fauna, and the names are unciuestionably vpJid. The 
preface begins : " WTien first I read the Catalogue of Birds, 
newly printed by my friend Dr. Leach, of the British Museum, 
I found some difficulty in attaching distinct ideas of the species; 


to the names he has adopted, on account of their newness. 
Having heard many other persons express the same difficulty, 
I thought a Catalogue of Birds with the two sets of names 
put together, side by side, might be acceptable to many 
readers ... In the following Catalogue, the large capitals will 
designate the Linnean name according to the arrangement 
now adopted. The small Roman letter will mark the names 
of the old writers brought to light again by Dr. Leach. Where 
I have altered them, I have put a ? (In those few instances 
where he has appeared to me to have mistaken the old name, 
I have ventured to substitute one which I believe to belong 
anciently to the bird.) " 

As aforesaid, this Catalogue is fairly well known, but this 
note deals with another and liitherto overlooked essay b}^ 
Thomas Forster which may have some interest to nomen- 
claturists. In 1827 appeared " The Pocket Encyclopaedia 
of Natural Phenomena .... compiled principally from the 
Manuscripts and MS. Journals of the late T. F. Forster, Esq., 
F.L.S., etc. By T. Forster." Five parts are included, as 
f oUows : Part i. , Prognostics of the Weather ; Part n. , 
Indications of the Seasons ; Part iii., Signs of the Seasons ; 
Part IV., The Rustic Calendar; and Part v., A Synoptical 
Catalogue of the Flora Spectabilis. As Supplementary 
additions to Part v., first is added : "A Correct Catalogue of 
the Ornithologia Europsea, or Birds of Europe ; compiled 
from the best authorities, and intended to serve as a table of 
reference to the birds alluded to in the other parts of tliis 
work, as well as being a general Index to the Birds of Europe, 
with the Latin, Enghsh, and French names of each genus and 
species. The Arabic figures, when prefixed to the names, 
refer to the Synoptical Catalogue of the Birds of Britain, 
which the author compiled some years ago, and wliicli was 
pubhshed by Messrs. Nichols and Son in 1817. This reference 
is used where identification of the species by different synonyms 
becomes necessary." 

This Catalogue shows the British Birds in italics and in 
many cases the species name is the one cited as the Linnean 
one in the Synoptical Catalogue, and is not in the novel one 



there introduced. Some of his new generic names are 
abandoned, but some new ones are proposed, 
p. 409 Caryocatactes nucifraga 1817 Nucifraga 


411 Fie aria hippolais 
Fie aria flavescens 
Ficaria sylvicola 

Regulus cristaurea 

412 SaUcaria locustella 
Sahcaria arundinacea 

414 Pyrrhula cocinea 
Hirundo cUvicola 

417 Butor stellaris 

418 Zaporina gahnella 

419 Caturates maximus 

Caturates naevius ? 

Caturates glaucus 
Caturates fuscus 

Trochilus minor for 

Sylvia hippolais 
Trochilus medius for 

Sylvia flavescens 
Trochilus major for 

Sylvia sylvicola 
Regulus vulgaris 
Sylvia locustella 
Sylvia arundinacea. 
Pyrrhula europsea 
Hirundo riparia Riparia 
Ardea stellaris 
Zaporina minuta 
Larus maximus for 

L. marinus 

Larus cinereus for L. 


Larus cinereus for L. 

420 Qiierquedula fusca 
Querquedula nigra 
Qiierquedula. etc. 

On p. 50, deahng with plants, is a note : " This is the 
Ficaria verna of Linnaeus. 

On p. 72. Willow Wrens ; a small genus of warblers called 
FicedulcE in modern books : and on p. 133, deahng with 
Willow Wrens, is written, Smallest Willow Wren, Sylvia 
Hippolais. ... p. 134. This is the Ficedula pinetorum of 
the new arrangement . . . Yellow Willow Wren, Sylvia 
trcchilus. . . . The Ficedula salicum of the new arrange- 
ment. . . . Largest Willow Wren, Sylvia sylvicola. . . . The 
Ficedula sylvicola of the new Synop. arrangement." 


On p. 118. " Redstart, Sylvia Pho&nicurus, according to 
Linnaeus a motacilla. This bird, when the genus motacilla 
were divided, ought to have retained its first generic name, 
being 'nearly related to the Wagtails. It is the Ruficilla 
muralis of'Forster's Synop. Catalogue." 

Is it possible that a revised edition of the Synoptical 
Catalogue appeared, of which at present we have no cognisance, 
as the names above quoted do not occur in the 1817 copies 
available ? In a list of " Books in Natural History, published 
by Wilham Wood, 428, Strand, " there is included " A Synop- 
tical Catalogue of British Birds. By T. Porster. Lond. 1821. 
8vo boards, with a coloured plate of the Strix Scops. 3s. 6d." 
The 1817 copy referred to for comparison above belonged to 
E. Forster Jun., to whom T. Forster makes acknowledgment 
on the last page, so that it should be a complete authentic 
copy of the 1817 issue, and it does not contain a coloured plate 
of the Strix Scops and was " printed by and for Nichols, Son 
and Bentley " and " Sold by T. and G. Underwood." 

It may be that the second print of the 1817 edition only 
contained the coloured plate, and it was continued in the 
" 1821 " edition, which we would like to see. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for October 1817, p. 348, 
appears : " Mr. Thomas Forster ha^ discovered in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tunbridge WeUs a new species of Wren ; it 
most nearly resembles the Sylvia hippolais of Montagu's 
Dictionary ; but it is dark brown above. Mr. Forster proposes 
to caU it Sylvia Brunnea." 

We have not seen this species otherwise quoted, while of 
the generic names in this 1827 book Butor has been credited 
to Swainson 1834 and Salicaria to Selby, while Caturates and 
Ficaria we have never seen recorded by any nomenclator. 
Caturates appears to have the first claim for the series of Gulls, 
if these be separated from L. canus, the type of Larus. The 
Mews bear the name Chroicocephalus Eyton 1836 as accepted 
by Ridgway in his recent work. It is remarkable that such a 
notable List should have escaped the note of every zoologist. 

For the species Acrocephalus palustris (Bechst. 1803) an 
earlier reference is Motacilla s. Sylvia palustris Bechstein, 


Latham's AUg. Ueber Vogel, Vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 545, 1798, which 
was introduced for the species described in the note in Vol. 
II., pt. 2, p. 431. 

The type of Carpodacus Kaup 1829 was designated by 
Gray in 1842, Appendix List Genera Birds, p. 11, as G. rosea 
(iPaU.) Kaup ; this is accurate and earlier than Gray 1855 
as given by even the American ornithologists. 

Gray in Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, 1855, p. 44, designated 
M. saxatilis as type of Monticola. In correcting the B.O.U. 
List's erroneous statement, Hartert has himself erred in the 
Pract. Handb. Brit. Birds, Vol. I., p. 421, 1920, in overlooking 
this item. 

AMOROPELIA gen. nov. 

By Gregory M. Mathews. 

Some years ago when I pointed out the exact usage of the 
genus name Turtur by Boddaert I was incited to provide a 
substitute for the genus name Turtur as commonly in use, 
but instead allowed the usage of Streptopelia. Mr. W. L. 
Sdater has again suggested the introduction of such a name, 
at least to be used subgenerically, and I therefore propose 
the above name for the group of which Columba turtur L. 
can be considered the type ; I have introduced it as a new 
generic name, but it can be used in a subgeneric sense by 
workers who make use of subgenera. 


Austral Avian Record 

Is published at irregular intervals, about four times 
per year, in parts oJ about 24 pages each, and 
often with a coloured Plate ; eight parts form 
a volume. Price per volume 12/- post free. 

The "Austral Avian Record'* contains : 

1. Discussions regarding the relationships and ranges of 

species and subspecies of particular genera, especially 
those which will not be dealt with in the immediate 
future in Mathews's "Birds of Australia," or those 
that have been. 

2. Revision of what has been published in the " Birds of 

Australia," when accession of material and new facts 
necessitate such revision. 

3. Description of new forms. 

4. Discussions regarding nomenclature. 

5. Supplements to the " Reference List of the ' Birds of 

Australia.' " 

6. Dates of Publication of works about which any doubt 


Australian Agents : — Melbourne, Melville & Mullen 
Proprietary Limited ; Sydney, Angus & Robertson 
Limited ; Adelaide, E. S. Wigg & Son ; Brisbane, 
Watson, Ferguson & Co. Limited ; Launceston, 
Birehall & Sons; Perth, E. S- Wigg & Son. 

H. F. & G, WITHERBY, 326, High Holborn, W.C.I, 


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March 7th. 1922. i 


Vol. IV., No. 7. March 7th, 1922. 


Additions and Corrections to my Check List, 1920 165 

An Extraordinary Bird Book . . . . . . 172 

Capt^vin Thomas Brown, Ornithologist . . . . 176 


LIST, 1920. 

By Gregory M. Mathews. 

Dr. C. W. Richmond has sent me over some notes concerning 
type designations which I had not given in the above List, 
and these I herewith record along with others I have recognised 
through these notes. Laubmann has pubhshed in the Archiv 
fur Naturg., 85 Jahr, 1919, pp. 137-168, publ. Aug. 1921. a 
Kritische Untersuchungen liber die Genotypfixierungen in 
Lesson's " Manuel d'Ornithologie " 1828, recording in detail 
all the types named in that work. This was not novel in any 
respect and nearly all his remarks had been anticipated in 
general usage in both England and America. However, in 
a general review such as Laubmann's, an item or two hitherto 
overlooked is brought to light and the most important to 
Australians is ignored by Laubmann through his general 
lack of knowledge of recent contemporary literature. Thus 
as the type of Prion Lacepede he aclniowledges Lesson's type 
selection ignorant of the fact that although Lesson wrote 
" Le type de ce genre est le petrel bleu, procellaria coerulea et 



^ i^AH ^ 3 1922 



vittata de Gmelin, decouvert par Forster," the two names 
referred to two different birds relegated to two distinct genera. 
Consequently Lesson's selection cannot be upheld. As above 
noted, this item revealed my own error in the same case as I 
had not noted the confusion and consequently the first type 
designation of Prion Lesson ex Lacepede is that by Gray 1840. 
However, prior to Lesson's recognition of Lacepede's indeter- 
minable Prion, Bowdich has figured the head and bill from the 
Paris specimen (Introd. Ornith. Cuvier, 1821, p. 78, pi. 21, 
fig. 259 bis), but without naming it, simply writing: "Prions 
Lacep. Pachyptila lUiger." 

p. 1. For Peronista peroni Rothschild read 

Peronista diemenianus (Jennings), Ornithologia, p. 382, 
Nov. 1827 (Founded on Plate 36 of Peron's work) : Kangaroo 

p. 3. WIegapodius Gaimard 1823. Type (by subsequent 
designation Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Types Aves, p. 40, 
1840), M. freycinet Gaimard. 

Add to the synonymy of Megapodius reinivardt 
Megapodius tumulator Anon, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
Ser. L, Vol. IX., p. 339, June 1, 1842. 
Megapodius tumulorum id. ih. 
Megapodius tumulificus id. ih. 
Alternate names for Gould's M. tumulus. 

p. 23. Pachyptila Illiger, 1811. Type (by subsequent desig- 
nation Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen., Types Aves, p. 49, 1840), 
P. forsteri Latham = P. vittata Gmehn. 

p. 31. Lestris Illiger, 1811. Type (by subsequent designa- 
tion Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1863, pp. 124, 128), 
L. parasiticus L. 

p. 55. Add to the synonymy of Anseranas semipalmata 

Chenogeranus australis Brown, Rep. Council Manchester 
Nat. Hist. Soc, p. 4, Jan. 1842, nomen nudem. 


p. 59. Aythya Boie, 1822. Type (by subsequent designation 
Gray, 1855, p. 124), A. jeriim L. 

p. 66. For Circus approximans Peale read 

Circus JUXTA Peale, United States Expl. Exped., Vol. VTIT., 
p. XV, 1848 (in or before October). 

And then read 

Circus juxta juxta 

Circus juxta gouldi 

Circus juxta inexpectatus 

p. 68. Pseudaetus" Hodgson, 1844," Bonaparte, 1854. Type 
(by subsequent designation Gray, 1855, p. 3), Falco bonelli 

p. 69. Pontoaetus Kaup 1844. Type (by subsequent desig- 
nation Baird Brewer and Ridgway, Hist. North American 
Birds, Vol. III., p. 320, 1874), Falco macei Temm. 

p. 70. For Gypoictinia Kaup, 1847, read 

Hamirostra Brown, Illustr. Gen. Birds, pt. viii., April 3, 
1846. Type (by monotypy) Hamirostra montana Brown 
= Buteo melanosternon Gould. 

And add 

Hamirostra melanosterna 

Hamirostra: melanosterna melanosterna 

Hamirostra melanosterna Montana 

p. 76. Trichoglossus Stephens 1826. Type (by subsequent 
designation Lesson Manuel d'Orn., Vol. II., p. 147, 1828), 
T. hamatodus =^ T. haematopus Stephens (pt.) = T. moUic- 
canus GmeUn. 

Australasia Lesson, 1830. Type (by subsequent designa- 
tion Salvadori, Ornit. Pap. e. Mol., Vol. I., p. 279, 1879), 
A. novcehollandice = T. moluccanus Gmehn. 

p. 80. Addtothe synonymy oi HarrisornislathamiTemminck 
Psittacus NIGER Jennings, Ornithologia, p. 399, Nov. 1827. 
Substitute name for P. cookii Temm. 


p. 85. Ptistes Gould, 1865. Type (by subsequent designa- 
tion Reichenow Journ. fiir Orn., p. 125, 1881), P. erythrop- 
terus Gmelin. 

p. 92. Euphema Wagler, 1832. Type (by subsequent desig- 
nation Gray, 1840, p. 52), Psittacus discolor White. 

p. 106. Add Menura nov^hollandi^ edwardi Chisholm, 
Emn, Vol. XX., pt. 4., p. 223, April 23, 1921 ; Stanthorpe, 
South Queensland. 

Northiella haematogaster narethae. 

This seems to be the correct name for the new form described 
and figured in the Emu, Vol. XXI., p. 81, pi. 12, Oct. 3, 1921, 
as Psephotus narethce H. L. White. 

The specimens presented by Mr. H. L. White to the British 
Museum have been compared, and the result seems certain 
that this is simply a further geographical variant of the well- 
known species. There is much more difference seen between 
typical hcBmOjtogaster with the yellow vent and hcematorrhous 
with the red vent than between Salvadori's pallescens and the 
present form. The latter is separable from the Cooper's Creek 
birds collected by Mr. S. White, on Oct. 9, 1863, by the shghtly 
different shade of blue on the face and cheeks, notably by the 
brighter yellow abdomen with entire suppression of red and 
by the red under tail-coverts instead of yellow : a.bove the 
new form is slightly darker on the back and the lower back is 
green instead of greyish and the upper tail-coverts are darker 
green, the outer median wing-coverts orange instead of greenish 
though these show a tinge of red. The specimens slightly 
differ from the description. 

Two birds collected by Mr. S. White as above differ notice- 
ably : one being paler on the breast but with a much larger 
patch of red on the abdomen, the patch on the other being 
very small. 

In all the normal yellow-vented birds a tinge of red can be 
seen in the under tail-coverts while some have red and yellow 
mixed and others have a few red feathers in the upper wing- 
coverts as noted by Salvadori (loc. cit). 


The extraordinary feature of the new race is the absence of 
red on the abdomen combined with the presence of reel under 
tail-coverts, while the bright yellow colouring of the abdomen 
and the green of the lower back are very striking. Neverthe- 
less the authorities at the British Museum are agreed that the 
value of the bird appears to be subspecific, and that later 
absolute connecting links will be found. 

The following refer to my 1913 List : — 

p. 286. Myzantha Vigors and Horsfield, 1827. Type (by 
subsequent designation, Lesson, Manuel d'Orn., Vol. II., 
p. 67, 1828), M. garrulus Latham. 

p. 294. Anthus'BQch.iiiein, 1805. Type (by subsequent designa- 
tion, Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Types Birds, p. 12, 1840), 
Anthus pratensis. 

p. 288. Creadion Vieillot, Analyse Nouv. Ornith., p. 36, 
April 14, 1816. Type (by subsequent designation. Lesson, 
Compl. de CEuvres Buffon, Vol. IX., p. 7, 1837), Corvus 
•paradoxus Latham = Daudin. 

This will replace Dyottornis Mathews, 1912. 


Creadion paradoxus 

Creadion paradoxus paradoxus 

Creadion paradoxus westernensis 

Creadion was introduced by Vieillot in his Analyse nouv. 
Ornith., p. 34, 1816, with a diagnosis a^nd attached thereto 
were three names thus : " Sturnus carunculatus, Merops 
carimculatu's , Corvus paradoxus Lath." 

The following year in the Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Not. , nouv. ed. , 
Vol. VIII. , p. 390, the genus was fully described, and no type 
was selected, but two divisions were indicated. In the Ency. 
Method, and in the Galerie des Oiseaux nothing was added but 
in the latter book the Merops is figured. 

Lesson in the Manuel d' Ornith., Vol. II., p. 68, 1828, wrote : 
" PhiUanthe, Anthocoera Horsf. et Vie;. : Creadion, creadion 


Vieill. ; et Dilophe, dilophus Vieill. ' L'espece qui sert de 
type au genre philantlie avait deja porte M. Vieillot a etablir 
le genre creadion, qu'il plaQait a cote des etourneaux, par une 
analogie forcee et tout-a-fait fictive.' " 

While quibbles might be raised concerning this being a 
rigid type designation, nothing can be urged against the 
clean statement made by Lesson in the Compl. de Oeuvres 
Buffon, Vol. IX., p. 7, 1837, when he wrote: "Creadion 
Vieillot. Le type de ce genre, et sans contredit la seule espece 
qu'on doive y admettre est le creadion a pendeloques^ , qui 
habite la terre de Diemen." 

^Pie a pendeloques Daudin t. 11, pi. 16. 
Creadion carunculatus Vieill. Gal., pi. 94. 
Merops carunculatus Lath. 
Corvus paradoxus id., etc. 

Consequently Creadion is only available for the Tasmanian 
bird and must displace Dyottornis, which I lately proposed 
for it. 

p. 314. Coronica Gould, Synops. Birds Aust. , pt. I., Jan. 1837. 
Type (by subsequent designation, Selby, Cat. Gen. Subgen. 
Types Birds, p. 16, 1840), Coronica fuliginosa Gould. 

The following dates of publications are of interest : 

Horsfield in Zool. Researches in Java 1821, in the text of 
Tapirus malayanus says that Vol. XIII. , pt. i., of the Trans. 
Linn. Soc. (Lond.) was published in May, 1821. 

Shaw, Zool. New Holland, Vol. I., pt. i., 1794, pt. ii., 1794, 
pt. III., 1795 (Cf. Gottingisches Journal, Vol. L, Heft. 2, 
p. 143). 

Gray List Sp. Birds Brit. Mus., pt. iii., p. 95, 1844. Received 
by Boston Society Nat. Hist, on or before Oct. 2, 1844. 

Seebohm Geogr. Dist. Charad., 1888. This is given in Zool. 
Record (Aves) for the year 1887. And Seebohm sent 
the Smithsonian Institute a copy with a dedication written 
by him, dated December 25, 1887. 


Bennett, Gardens Menag. Zool. Soc , 1831. To appear in 
monthly parts. Part i. is noted in Loudon's Mag. for July, 
1829, p. 241. Parts i-iii in same for January, 1830, p. 81. 
No. 10 published in July, 1830, and Bennett writing on 
March 10, 1831, says " two volumes now completed." 
(Cf. Loudon's Mag., Vol. IV., p. 200). 

Brandt, Descr. Icon. Anim. Russ. Nov. Aves, fasc, 1836, 
before September 5. (Cf. Bull. Sci. Acad. Imp., St. Petersb., 
for Sept 5, 1836). 

Mem I'Acad. Imp. Sci., St. Petersb. Ser. VI, Vol. V., pt. ii., 
Oct. 1840. (Cf. Ricker, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., Vol. XXL, 
pp. 11-18. 1908). 

Burmeister, Verzeichn, Zool. Mus. Halle, 1850, before Sept. 15. 

Jacquinot et Pucheran, Voy. Pole Sud. Zool., Vol. III., 1853. 
Received by Paris Acad. Sci., Oct. 10, 1853. 

Horsfield and Moore, Cat. Birds Mus. E. India Comp., Vol. II., 
1857. Received Asiat. Soc, Bengal in Sept.-Oct., 1858. 
(Cf. Journal As. Soc. Beng., Vol. XXVII. , p. 390, 1858. 



By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 

We have recorded from time to time some peculiar literary 
efforts in connection with ornithology, but the present case 
is one of the most extraordinary items we have noted. 

" Ornithologia, or The Birds ; a poem in two parts, by 
James Jennings, 1828," is not an unknown title, but probably 
very few ornitliologists of the present generation have ever 
examined it, or was curiosity evinced in it. The opportunity 
of acquiring a " Second Edition, with additions and 
corrections " instigated this note, as examination revealed 
facts which suggested the above title. 

As subsidiary to the Poem is " an Introduction to their 
Natural History ; and Copious Notes " ; and on p. 32, after 
a Synopsis of Linne's System has been given and some notes 
regarding such, this is recorded : "A Synopsis of Dr. Latham's 
Last Work on Birds. The Latin names of the Genera are 
supphed, in part, from the Index Ornithologicus of Dr. Latham, 
and the remainder from private information kindly com- 
municated by Dr. L. from his MS. copy of a new edition 
of the index not yet pubhshed." In tliis Synopsis the new 
generic names AnthojjJiagus for the Honey-Eater (p. 33) 
and Pteropus for the Fin-foot (p. 36) immediately attract 
attention. These two names have previously escaped the 
eyes of recorders, and as both prove to be preoccupied they 
can cause no alterations. It may be as well to renew the fact 
that Newton has put on record the information that Latham's 
MS. Index, which never was published, came into his hands 
and is in liis Library, which, to the disgrace of Cambridge 
University, appears to be in a most neglected state. 

The book begins with a Preface wherein Jennings discusses 
the usage of scientific terms as opposed to vernaculars, and 
concludes Poetry will prove a profitable vehicle for the popular- 
ising of the study of ornithology. Therefore, in the poem 
he has not used scientific names, but by means of notes has 


given a scientific review of bird knowledge, incorporating 
his own observations on British birds. Hence, upon opening 
the book, we commonly find only two lines of poetry on the 
page, the remainder being occupied by the explanatory notes. 
As instance: "There were Woodcocks (10), and Snipes, 
both Grallatoes of fame. Now distinguished, ah me ! 
in our annals as Game." The next four and a half pages (bar 
the usual two lines of poetry at the head of the psge) are 
occupied by the explanation of (10), beginning : " Order, 
Gralla} (Linn), Woodcock, Snipe, Curlew, Godwit, Green- 
shank, etc. The genus Scolopax (Linn. ) to wliich the Woodcock, 
Scolopax Rusticola, belongs, consists of fifty-six or more species, 
of which fifteen are common to this country." Then the 
genus is characterised and the Woodcock, Common Snipe, 
Great Snipe, Jack Snipe, Jaclreka Snipe, Spotted Snipe, 
Godwit, etc., etc., are all described, and general habits, nests 
and eggs and odd notes given. As these notes are based 
more or less on Latham.'s General History of Birds, they are 
comparatively accurate. The poem is in two parts, the first- 
dealing with British and European Birds and occupying 
pages 99-298, and the second of Foreign Birds, pages 301-436. 
A glossary of terms of four pages follows, and then th,e Index, 
covering pages 441-468 and completely citing the vernaculars 
and scientific names used in tliis work. 

The first nearly 100 pages is worthy of note, as after the 
preface of xiv. pages, contents and addenda and corrigenda 
run to p. XXIX. The Introduction takes up 96 pages and 
begins with a piece of poetry of general interest, noting well- 
known places round London where birds could be observed. 
As he states he lived most of his life in Somersetshire, apparently 
he came to London before this book was written. Towards 
the end of the piece of poetry he gives a long note regarding 
birds' nests. 

At page 26 he drops poetry altogether and deals in prose 
with the Natural History of Birds, first quoting Linne's 
Genera of Birds, then noting Pennant, Latham and Brisson, 
writing : " it is hoped nothing of importance in the Natural 
History of Birds has been omitted." Then follows the 


synopsis of Latham's conclusions already noted, succeeded 
by a review of Vigors' Quinary Arrangement and suggests 
the usage of English names based upon Vigors' Latin ones, 
thus Grallators for the Grallatores, then for the divisions of 
Raptors suggests Falconids, Vulturids, Strigids, and so on. 
It is well known these names did not gain acceptance, yet 
to-day in connection with the lower classes of zoology, where 
vernaculars are rarely used, such terms are constantly coined 
with convenience. Then follow general notes on the structure, 
anatomy, senses, blood, crops, etc., habits, sleep, pairing, 
incubation, songs, migration, etc., quite a useful little 
commentary, and as above noted, for the time comparatively 

On account of the usage of Latham's MS. Index one or two 
scientific names occur herein for the first time, and these 
do not appear to have been previously recorded in synonymy. 

On p. 319 " Cinnyris affinis (Linn. Transact., Vol. XIII.)," 
is described and as a synonym is given Anthophagus olivaceus 

On p. 329 : " The genus Anthophagus Lath, or Honey- 
Eater consists of seventy species," and is described : " This 
genus is also divided by Dr. Latham into those with thrush- 
like bills, and those with creeper bills. The following are 
examples of each: The Chicinnatus (Lath.) Poe-Honey-Eater, 
fuUy described, and The Great Hooked-billed Honey-Eater, 
Certhia pacifica, also fuUy described. 

On p. 382 appears: "The Casuarius Diemenianus (Lath.) 
or Van Diemen's Land Cassowary," the description abbreviated 
from Latham's account. (Gen. Hist. Birds, Vol. VIII., p. 384). 

On p. 390 : " The genus Pteropus, or Fin-foot, of Dr. Latham, 
consists of two species. . . . The Africanus, or African 
Fin-foot. . . . inhabits Africa. . . . The Surinamensis, or 
American Fin-foot inhabits Surinam. Psittacus niger is 
suggested on p. 399 for Cook's Cockatoo, P. cooA;m' Temminck. 

Anthophagus must have a type named so that it can be 

^ cited in synonymy, and it seems as weU to select the first 

mentioned in connection, A. olivaceus Lath., i.e. Cinnyris 

affinis Horsfield, and this is here so designated. This places 


Anthophagus as a synonym of Arachorothera and Anthophagus 
Gravenhorst, Coleopt. micr. p. 120, 1802, effectually prohibits 
its later usage by any means. 

Pteropus similarly must be fixed, and we select the first 
named P. africanus as the type, and thus it becomes a synonym 
of Podica, but it is also preoccupied by Pteropus Brisson, 
Reg. Anim., p. 153, 1762. 

The species, P. africanus, is well figured and described in 
Latham's General History, and it appears to be the South 
African form known as P. pectersi, a much later name. The 
matter is complex, but it is very possible that Jennings' name 
must come into use. We have discussed this item with 
Mr. J. Chapin, of the American Museum, who has been study- 
ing these birds and it was decided that unless the type can 
be traced or the type locahty be determined, the name must 
be regarded as a synonym of the earlier H. senegalensis, as 
Latham's complete description and good figure are applicable 
to the immature specimens of either species. 

Jennings' name Casuarius diemenianus is founded on 
Latham's description (Gen. Hist. Birds, Vol. VIII., p. 384, 
1823), of Lesueur's plate 36 in Peron's Voy. Decouv. Terres 
Australes, 1816. This plate is reproduced in Mathews' Birds 
of Australia, Vol. I., plate 4, Oct. 31st, 1910. As Lesueur's 
plate represents the Kangaroo Island bird, its name is 
Dro7naius diemeiiianus or Peronisla diemenianus. 

[If Dromaius diemenianus (Jennings) be considered too much 
like Dromaius diemenensis Le Souef, then I name the bird 
figured and described in my Birds of Australia, Vol. I., pi. 2, 
p. 14, 1910, Dromaius novcehollandice gunni. — G. M. M.] -^i^- 

Although the title page of the first edition bears the date 
1828, it was published the first week in November 1827. / 

The second edition appeared towards the end of 1829, all 
the new matter being contained in the " Preliminary Notices," 
and this deals with criticisms, omissions and additions but 
offers no more new names. 

Jennings also published "Pleasures of Ornithology" in --^ 
September 1828, which we have not yet seen. 




By Gregory M. Mathews and Tom Iredale. 

The name of Captain Thomas Brown (always use the Captain, 
otherwise the name is not uncommon) is very familiar to one 
of us, acquainted a little with conchological items. Conse- 
quently the recognition that the Captain had also touched 
upon ornithological writings was intriguing, as the Captain 
V never dealt with a subject without introducing some novelty. 

As this is probably the first time Brown has been written 
'/l^ about in connection with ornithology (but it will certainly 
' not be the last) it may be recorded that apparently he was 
endowed with restless energy and ambition, but many of his 
ideas never fructified. Further, the methods of pubhcation 
of his conchological writings proved so complex that even the 
indefatigable Sherboni, who probed into the matter, was 
compelled to confess that finality had not been achieved in 
his results. His ornithological writings promise even more 
trouble, as already the few items met with have provided more 
than their fair share of comphcations. 

Brown has been accused of piracy and anticipating other 
people's suggestions , but we cannot altogether agree with this 
view from the facts available. 

A not uncommon little book is entitled " The Miscellany / of / 
Natural History. / Volume I. / Parrots. / By / Sir 
Thomas Dick Lauder, Bart., F.R.S.E. / and Capt. Thomas 
Brown, F.L.S. / The engravings / By Joseph B. Kidd, Esq. / 
-Member of the Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture, / 
and Architecture. / and this appeared in 1833. This is exactly 
on the same pattern and style as the well-known Jardine's 
Naturahst's Library, which appeared the same year. The 
latter work was a great success, while Brown's never got 
beyond this first volume. Possibly this note will bring forth 
the facts concerning this supposed piracy, as the coinci- 
dental issue is very remarkable and may be the source of the 


At the end of this httle volume is an inset " The Miscellany 
of Natural History Advertiser," and on p. 16 is " Recently 

Published. White's Natural History of Selbourne 

Notes by Captain Thomas Brown," and then " This Day is 
published. I. Part IX. . . . Illustrations of American 
Ornithology. . . . Captain Thomas Brown. . . . The illus- 
trations will comj)rise, not only the whole of the birds given 
by Alexander Wilson and Charles Lucian Bonaparte . . . 
but will also contain various newly discovered species. . . 
To be completed in sixteen parts, each containing Five beauti- 
fully coloured Plates. . ." "... II. Illustrations of the 
Game Birds of All Countries, coloured after Nature, and chiefly 
of the size of the originals. By Captain Thomas Brown." 

We don't exactly see how the first mentioned of these can 
be regarded as a piracy, while the second, which as far as we 
have yet traced never appeared, seems entirely original. 

The Illustrations of American Ornithology is one of the 
rarest and most expensive of ornithological works, and the 
examination of the example lately in the Godman Library 
did nob reveal any new names, the " newly discovered species " 
apparently referring to those described by other authors since 
the time of Wilson. 

Some months ago we made note of another work on Birds 
by Captain Thomas Brown, and noted it was in the Library of 
the Zoological Society of London. Upon reference we were 
surprised to find that the copy there consisted of a few numbers 
in wrappers, bound up with the wrappers but not in order, 
and presented an inexph cable problem. As among these a 
new genus of Austrahan birds was seen, it was essential to 
trace the whole of the work and determine the facts. This 
was not easily done, but as the bird described was stated to be 
in the Museum of the Manchester Natural History Society, 
of which Captain Thomas Brown was Curator, investigation 
was extended to that City. 

Dr. W. M. TattersaU, the Keeper of the Manchester Museum, 
and Mr. T. E. Coward, the well-known Ornithologist, assisted 
in the search with good results. The bird could not be traced 
nor any record, nor was a copy of the work in the Museum, 


but Mr. Coward had several parts in his possession, and these 
were handed to us for examination, and provide the basis 
of the following account, the other copies known being used 
in conjunction. 

The wrapper has at the top No. 1 Price 3s., and at the foot 
April 1845. The centre carries the following " Illustrations / 
of the / Genera of Birds, / embracing their / Generic Characters ; 
/ with / Sketches of their Habits. / By / Captain Thomas 
Brown, / M.W.S., M.P.S., M.M.G.S., / Formerly President of 
the Royal Physical Society, and Present Curator of the 
Manchester Natural History Society's / Museum, Author of 
Illustrations of the Fossil Conchology and of Illustrations 
of the Recent / Conchology of Great Britain and Ireland, 
&c., &c., &G. / London: / Smith, Elder & Co., 65, Cornhill. / 
Edinburgh : / Maclachlan & Stewart, 64, South Bridge. / 
Peter Brown, Printer, Edinburgh. . ." 

Some wrappers differ in no respect save that the name of 
the publisher reads " Manchester : / James Ainsworth, 93, 
Piccadilly. . ." 

On the back of the cover of the first part is " Prospectus. 
The only European Work on the Genera of Birds is Vieillot's 
Galerie des Oiseaux, published at Paris in 1825, with in- 
differently executed Lithographic Illustrations, at the price 
of £16 10s. Since the ajjpearance of that Work, the number 
of Genera have been considerably augmented, owing to the 
great influx of species and the advanced state of the science. 
The Work now proposed will be illustrated by Engravings 
on Steel. . . The general arrangement of the Genera of 
Birds will be that of Baron Cuvier, as modified by Mr. George 
Robert Gray and adopted in the British Museum. . . . 
As the Author has been upwards of five years engaged in 
preparing materials for the present Work, and many of the 
Plates being already engraved, he can pledge himself as to the 
regular appearance of a Monthly Number. The size of the 
work is Imperial Quarto, and will extend to about 50 Numbers, 
each containing Four highly-finished Coloured Plates, engraved 
on Steel in the Line manner, accompanied by Letter-press 
Descriptions of their Generic Characters, and Sketches of the 


General Habits of their respective Families and Genera, with 
occasional representations of the Heads, Feet and Wings 
engraved on separate plates." 

Part I. includes coloured plates of Blue Jay {Garrulus 
cristatus), Canada Grouse {Tetrao canadensis), Yellow-tailed 
Gnat-Catcher {Setophaga ruticilla), Roseate Spoonbill {Platalea 
ajaya) and black plate of heads and feet of members of the 
Tetraonince and Pterocinoe (Sand Grouse). Four pages of 
text unnumbered but bearing a signature " A " accompany 
these deahng with " Order I. Accipitres- Linnaeus." Full 
diagnoses are given of the Order, Tribe, Family and Genera, 
but no list of species. 

Part II. has four coloured plates : Broadwinged Buzzard 
{Buteo pennsylvanicus) , Lapland Long - Spur Bunting 
{Plectrophanes lapponicus), Carohna Parrot {Arara carolinensis) 
and Virginian Ortyx {Ortyx virginiana). There are again 
four pages of text, but nothing more erratic has ever been 
seen. The first page bears the signature " N " and deals with 
" Order V. Gallinse. Tribe IV. Tetraonidse. " The second 
page bear's the signature " Y " with " Order II. Passeres. 
Tribe I. Corvidse " ; the third page follows on, bub the 
fourth page is concerned with " Order VII. Grallae. 
Tribe II. Ardeidse," and has the signature " Q." 

Part III. has four coloured plates : White-headed Sea Eagle 
{Haliaetus lecocephalus). Madeira Swift {Cypsehis unicolor), 
American Kinglet {Regulus americanus) and Great Northern 
Diver {Colymbus glacialis). 

All the plates ha-ve upon them " Engraved by W. H. Lizars, 
Edinburgh," but no artist's name, being from Brown's own 
drawings, but the painting of the Madeira Swift is " Drawn by 
Sir W. Jardine, Bart." 

The text in this part is a complete sheet signature " E " 
deahng with " Order 11. Passeres. Tribe IV. FringiUidse. 
Family IV. to VII. Fringillinse to Pyrrhuhnae." 

Part IV. has four coloured plates : Cooper's Sparrow- 
Hawk {Accipiter cooperi), Rose- breasted Grosbeak (Guiraca 
ludoviciana), Zenaida Dove {Zenaida amabilis), and Bewick's 
Swan {Cygnus bewickii). 


The text is four separate sheets again ; the first with the 
signature " b b " treats of Order II. Passeres. Tribe IV. 
Fringilhdse. Family II. Coccothraustinse ; the second witfi 
signature " F " is of the same group following the signature 
" E " of Part III. ; the next two are consecutive, being half 
of sheet " K " dealing with Order IV. Columbse. 

Part V. has four coloured plates : Sociable Vulture {Otogyps 
auricularis) (Drawn by Captain Brown), Hawk Owl {Surnia 
funerea), Red-bellied Nuthatch {Sitta varia) and Barn Swallow 
{Hirundo rufa). The text is again a complete sheet with the 
signature " U," dealing with Order VIII. Anseres. 

Part VI. has four coloured plates : Barn Owl {Strix flammea), 
Bewick's Wren {Troglodytes hewickii), Golden Oriole {Oriolus 
galhula) (Engraved by J. Miller), and Meadow Lark {Sturnella 
ludoviciana). The text is a complete sheet, signature "V" 
following the preceding one and dealing with Anseres to the 
Family VII. Erismaturinse. 

Part VII. has four coloured and one black plate : the 
coloured plates are Long-Eared Owl {Otus vulgaris), Black and 
Orange Baltimore {Yephantes baltimore), Bohemian Waxwing 
{Ampelis garrulus) and Great Merganser {Mergus castor). 
The black plate shows heads and feet of members of the 
Family Vulturidse. The text is again a complete sheet, 
following on the preceding, with the signature "W" and 
passing to the Tribe II. Colymbidse of the Anseres. 

Parts VIIL and IX. are included in one wrapper and there 
are eight coloured and one black plate. The coloured ones 
are : Pigeon Falcon [Hypotriorcliis columharius), Broadshafted 
Wliidah Weaver {Vidua parauisea), Black-Capt Tit {Parus 
atricapillus), Common Creeper {Certhia familiaris), Virginian 
Horned Owl {Bubo virginiana) , Great Northern Shrike {Lanius 
horealis), Martinico Sultana {Porphyrio nmrtinica), Black- 
bellied Darter {Plotus anchinga), while the black plate shows 
heads of the Order Anseres. The text is two complete sheets 
bearing signatures " B " and " C " and deal with the Order I. 
Accipitres, following the text of Part I. 

Parts X., XL, XII. appear in one wrapper with twelve 
coloured plates : Wilson's Sialia (Sialia ivilsonii), Purple 


Grakle {Quiscalus purpureus), Red Tanager (Pyranga rubra), 
Pine Bullfinch {Strobilophaga enudeator), Redlieaded Wood- 
pecker [Picus erythrocephalus), Turnstone {Cinclus morinellus), 
American Avoset {Recurvirostra americana), Hudsonian Sand- 
piper {Hemipalma multistriata) , Pintail Duck {Dafila acuta), 
Ruddy Spinetailed Duck {Erismatura ruhida), Leach's Storm 
Petrel {Thalassidroma leachii), and Short-tailed Tern (1) and 
Wilson's Tern (2) {Hydrochelidon plumbea and Sterna wilsonii). 
The text includes a Title Page with the same wording as on 
the wrappers, with the addition of " Part First " and date 
" 1846." A page following is occupied by a dedication. 
" To / John Owen, Esq. / of / Holly-Bank, / Near Manchester, / 
Honorary Secretary of the Manchester Natural History 
Society ; Member of the Literary and Philosophical and 
Geological Societies / of Manchester, etc. , etc. / The following / 
Work on the Genera of Birds / is inscribed, as a mark of esteem 
and regard, / by / his faithful friend and servant, / Thomas 
Brown. / Natural History Society's Museum, / Manchester, 
June 1846./" 

The text included in this part covers two pages of signature 
" D " about " Order I. Accipitres, Tribe III. Strigidse " ; 
then a whole sheet with signature " G " of " Order III. 
Scansores lUiger," Toucans & Parrots ; then two pages with 
signature " b b 2 " of " Order II. Passeres, Tribe IV. 
Fringilhdse. Family II. Coccothraustinse " following signa- 
ture " b b " which appeared in the fourth part ; then a sheet 
with a signature " h " following the sheet " G " continuing 
the Parrots and leading on to Woodpeckers. 

Parts 13, 14 are included in one wrapper with eight 
coloured plates : Bandtailed Pigeon {Columha fasciata), 
American CrossbiU {Loxia americana), Shore Lark {Octocris 
alpestris), American Woodcock {Scolopax minor), Laughing 
Goose {A7iser alhijrons). Red Flamingo {Phoenicopterus ruber'). 
Black Skimmer {Rhynchops nigra), Wood Ibis {Tantalus 
loculator) ; the text consists of two sheets, with signatures 
" i " and " k " and consecutively follow on with the last 
part, dealing with Woodpeckers and Cuckoos, but only three 
pages of the last sheet appear, the last page having a signature 
" 2 k." 


The fact that a title page for the " Part First " appears in 
connection with Part XII. suggests these Parts 13 and 14 
are part of another volume, but this is all we know at present. 

The signatures help to arrange the text so that we have a 
series A, B, C, D, E, F, G, h, i, k, K, N, Q, U, V, W, Y, b b, 
b b 2, but wliile the first four do follow, the b b, and b b 2 
come in before E and F, and something is missing, while G 
does not directly follow F but G, h, i, k continues a series, as 
does U, V, W, but the others are odd and Y comes in before 
b b so that the sequence reads A, B, C, I) . . .Y . . . b b, 
b b 2 . . . E, F . . . G, h, i, k, 2 k . . . K . . . N . . . 
Q. . . U, V, W. 

Now, as to the publication of these parts. Apparently 
the wrappers were printed and dated in advance, because we 
have No. I., April 1845; II., May 1845; III., June 1845; 
IV., July 1845; V., August 1845; VI., September 1845; 
VII., October 1845, but no more. The wrappers for the 
succeeding numbers were those of the above with the figures 
altered by hand, and there are discrepancies between the 
London and Manchester issues. In the latter as given above. 
Parts 8 and 9 were issued in one wrapper and that was of a 
No. v., whereas the London Parts 8 and 9 appear to have 
wrappers separately, a No. VII. wrapper being used by the 
addition of a I. for the eighth part and a No. II. for the ninth, 
and while in the former the word October was crossed out, 
in the latter the word NOV^- was introduced in place 
of May. In both issues Parts 10, 11, 12 were issued together, 
a No. I. wrapper being altered for the London issue. III. for 
Manchester, but no date added. In both these instances the 
price was also altered, the 3s. being made into 6s. for the 
double part and into 9s. for the three-part issue. 

It will be seen then that Parts I. to VII. are dated at montlily 
intervals, and apparently 8 and 9 are for November 1845, 
yet Parts 10, 11, 12 include title page and introduction date 
June 1846, and agrees with an item " Illustr. . . Smith and 
Elder 1847. 36s." 

No evidence as to such publication has yet been traced, 
and though Part I. appears among the books pubhshed in 


1847 the parts in the British Museum have dates of receipt 
upon them as follows : No. 1, April 17, 1845 ; No. 2, May 28, 
1845 ; No. 3, August 5, 1845 ; No. 6, Feb. 2, 1846 ; No. 8 
(and 9), April 22, 1846 ; and Nos. 9-12, Feb. 8, 1847. At 
this point it is marked " All pubhshed," but we have given 
details of Parts 13/14, and there is a record of sixteen parts 
which we have been unable to confirm. 

As a synonym (in Part V.) of Anseranus Lesson appears 
Chenogeranus Brown, and (in Part VII.) as a synonym of 
Biziura Leach is cited Pileata Brown and in Part VIII. a 
new genus of Aquihne birds is fully described as Hamirostra 

As an example of the style may be cited the novelty : 

Genus Hamwostra Brown. 

Bill lengthened, and moderately deep at the base. Culmen 
gradually bending from the base to the point, which terminates 
in an acute incurved tip ; lateral margins nearly parallel 
and even, with an almost obsolete festoon towards the point ; 
under mandible narrow, with the gonys sMghtly bent. Cere 
very long, covering fully hah" the length of the bill, and partially 
covered with bristled plumes. Nostrils oblong-ovate, obhquely 
transverse, and situate near the margin of the cere. Tarsi 
short and robust, partially concealed above with the lengthened 
tibial plumes, and entirely covered with rather large irregular 
scales. Toes rather lengthened, the lateral ones unequal, 
the outer being slender and longest, the inner one very robust, 
aU of them, as well as the hallux, covered above to the base 
with large broad transverse scuteUiform scales, and below 
with small papillose ones. Hallux very robust, longer than 
the inner toe, and furnished with a very large shghtly-hooked 
claw. Claws of moderate size and a little bent. Wings very 
long, extending beyond the point of the tail ; the second, 
third, and fourth quiUs nearly equal and longest. Tail rather 
short, very broad, and a little rounded at its point. 

I have founded this genus on a single species, and it is a 
medium-sized Eagle, It is a native of New Holland, and 
locates on mountains in the neighbourhood of lakes and rivers. 


Its food consists of fish and reptiles. The specimen in the 
Manchester Museum was brought by Mr. George Johnson 
from the neighbourhood of Swan River. It is a compact 
and strong bird, somewhat larger than the Osprey. I have 
designated it Hamirostra montana. It is called the Broad- 
Tailed Mountain Eagle by the settlers." 

This aprpears to refer to the Black-breasted Buzzard, Buteo 
melttTiosternon, Gould, 1840, for which Kaup introduced the 
genus Gypoictinia in 1847, a year later than Brown's 
genus name. 

Dr. TattersaU, Keeper of the Manchester Museum, sent us 
the following note : "I have just come across a copy of the 
printed " Report of the Council of the Manchester Natural 
History Society" issued in 1842. On page four is written 
under date 31st January, 1842, ' The accompanying list 
of Donations will show that many interesting additions have 
been made to the Museum during the last year. In the 
department of Ornithology alone, nearly seven hundred speci- 
mens have been added to the general collection ; among 
them a pair of Wild Turkeys from North America, and that 
remarkable bird from New Holland which formed part of the 
splendid donation of David Cannon McConnell, Esq. This 
bird exhibits a combination of characters irreconcilable with 
any genera of " Le Begne Animal " of Cuvier, or of the arrange- 
ment of Temminck, and which Captain Brown suggests may 
be constituted a new genus under the appellation of 
Chenogeranus Australis, or Australian Goose-Crane.' " 

We have not traced the other genus name also recorded in 
synonymy, Pileata Brown, but it may also occur in some 
similar extract. 

As the few copies of this work we have traced all consist 
of some parts in wrappers and none complete in themselves 
save one shows the twelve parts " all pubhshed," and this 
agrees with the published data, we have extracted the classifi- 
cation in detail for reference As we have fourteen parts 
in view now and a record of sixteen some of these may be 
found later without wrappers, and as there is no pagination 
for gauging such the complete details should immediately 


determine such parts. We may add that the whole of the 
divisions mentioned hereafter are described in fiill as the 
example cited. 

With regard to the synonymous names cited we note many 
misprints, but do not think it is of much value citing same 
in synonymy, unless of pecuhar formation, although such has 
been customary. 

Order I, Accipitres Linnaeus 

Grand Division I. Accipitres Diurni 

Tribe I. Vulturidse 

Family I. .Gypaetinae 

Genus Gypaetus Storr 

Family II. Sarcoramphinse 

Genus Neophron Savigny Sarcoramphus Dumeril 

Cathartes Illiger 

Family III. Vulturinse 

Genus Vultur Moehring Gyps Savigny 

Otogyps G. R. Gray 

Family IV. Gypohieracinse 

Genus Gypohierax Riippell 

Tribe II. Falconidae 

Family I. Polyborinse 

Genus Ibycter Vieillot Polyborus Vieillot 

Milvago Spix 

Family II. Buteoninse 
Genus Buteo Cuvier 

Family III. AquiUnse 

Genus Aquila Brisson Circaetus Vieillot 

Morphnus Cuvier Haliaetus Savigny 

Spiznetus Vieillot Hamirostra Brown 

Harpy ia Vieillot Pontoaetus Kaup 

Cachinna Fleming Habiastur Selby 

Pandion Savigny Helotarsus Smith 



Family IV. 

Genus Falco Linnsens 

Tinnunculus Vieillot 
Hypotriorchis Boie 

Family V. 

Genus Milvus Cuvier 

Avicida Swainson 
Baza Hodgson 
Pernis Cuvier 
Nauclerus Vigors 


leracidea Gould 
Harpagus Vigors 
lerax Vigors 


Cymindis Cuvier 
Elanus Savigny 
Rostrhamus Lesson 
Gaynpsonyx Vigors 
Ictinia Vieillot 

Family VI. Accipitrinse 

Genus Accipiter Brisson 
Astur Lacepede 
Ischnosceles Strickland 

Family VII. 

Genus Circus Lacepede 

Polyhoroides Smith 

Melierax G. R. Gray 
Micrastur G. R. Gray 
Poliornis Kaup 

Serpentarnis Cuvier 

Grand Division II. Accipitres Nocturnes 

Tribe III. 

Family I. 

Genus Surnia Dumeril 
Athene Boie 

Family II. 

Genus Bttbo Sibbald 

Ketupa Lesson 

Family III. 

Genus Syrnium Savigny 
Nyctale Brehm 

Nyctea Stephens 


Ejjhialtes Keyserhng and 

Otus Cuvier 

Order II. Passeres 

No. 7.] 



Grand Division IV. Conirostres 

Tribe I. Corvidse 

Family I. Phony gaminse 

Genus Oyymiorhina G. R. Gray Phonygama Lesson 
Strepera Lesson 

Family II. 

Genus Cyanocorax Boie 
Cissa Boie 
Psilorhinus RiippeU 

Family III. 

Genus Crypsirina Vieillot 


Garrulus Brisson 
Perisoreus Bonaparte 
Lophocitta G. R. Gray 

Struthidea Gould 

Tribe IV. FringiUidse 

Family II. 
Genus Pyrenestes Swainson 
Guiraca Swainson 
Coccothraustes Brisson 
Cardinalis Bonaparte 
Spermospiza Swainson 


Calamospiza Bonaparte 
Geospiza Gould 
Camarhynchus Gould 
Gactornis Gould 
Certhidea Gould 

Family III. Tanagringe 

Genus Pipils VieiUot 

Emberizoides Temminck 
Pitylus Cuvier 
Gissopis Vieillot 
Ramphopis Vieillot 

SuUator Vieillot 
Lamprotes Swainson 
Tachyphomis Vieillot 
Gypsnagra Lesson 
Arremon Vieillot 

Family IV. 

Genus Garduelis Brisson 
Fringilla Linnaeus 
Passerella Swainson 


Ammodramus Swainson 
Chondestes Swainson 
Zonotrichia Swainson 



Family V. 

Genus Emberiza Linnaeus 
Euspiza Bonaparte 
Guhernatrix Lesson 

Family VI. 

Genus Alauda linnseus 

Megalophonus Swainson 
Melanocoryplm Boie 
Otocoris Bonaparte 
Pyrrhulauda A. Smith 

Family VII. 

Genus PyrrJmla Mcehring 
Crithagra Swainson 
Carpodacus Kaup 
Spermophila Swainson 


Fringillaria Swainson 
Plectrophanes Meyer 


Mirafra Horsfield 
Certhilauda Swainson 
Erana G. R. Gray 
Macronyx Swainson 
Agrodroma Swainson 


Catarnblyrhynchus Laf resnaye 
Uragiis Keyserling and 

Strobilophaga Vieillot 

Family VIII. Loxinse 

Genus Loxia Brisson 

Order III. Scansores 
Tribe I. Ramphastidse 
Family I. Ramphastinse 
Genus Rampfmstos Linnaeus Pteroglossus lUiger 

Tribe II. 

Family I. 

Genus Nymphicus Wagler 
Platycercus Vigors 
Palmornis Vigors 
Coracopsis Wagler 
Prioniturus Wagler 



Pezoporus Illiger 
Melopsittacus Gould 
Euphema Wagler 
Trichoglossus Vigors 


No. 7.] 



Family II. 

Genus Ara Brisson 

Conurus Kuhl 

Enicognathtis G. R. 


Family III. Lorinse 

Genus Charmosyna Wagler Eclectus Wagler 

Eos Wagler GoripMlus Wagler 
Lorius Brisson 

Family IV. 
Genus Psittacus Linnaeus 

Tanygnctthus Wagler 
Psittacula Brisson 

Family V. 

Genus Microglossum Geoffroy 
Licmetis Wagler 
Cacatua Brisson 

Chrysotis Swainson 
Nasitema Wagler 


Strigops G. R. Gray 
Dasyptilus Wagler 
Nestor Wagler 

Calyptorhyiichus Vigors and Horsfielcl 

Tribe III. Picidse 
Family I. Capitoninse 

Genus Capito VieiUot 

Laimodon G. R. Gray 
Megalaima G. R. Gray 

Family II. 

Genus Picumnus Temminck 

Family III 

Genus Picoides Lacepede 
Picus Linnaeus 
Dryocopus Boie 
Chrysocolaptes Blyth 

Family IV. 

Genus Gecinus Boie 
Celeus Boie 
Hemilophus Swainson 
Chrysoptilus Swainson 

Psilopogon MuUer 
Megalorhynchus Eyton 

Sasia Hodgson 

. Picinse 
Dendrobates Swainson 
Campephilus G. R. Gray 
Hemicercus Swainson 


Campethera G. R. Gray 
Brachypternus Strickland 
Tiga Kaup 



Family V. Melanerpinae 

Genus Centurus Swainson Chloroner'pes Swainson 

Melanerpes Swainson Leuconerpes Swainson 

Family VI. Colaptinse 
Genus Colaptes Swainson Meiglyptes Swainson 

Family VII. Yunoinse 
Genus Yunx Linnaeus 

Tribe IV. CucuMdae 
Family I. Indicatorinae 
Genus Indicator Vieillot 

Family II. 
Genus Saurothera Vieillot 

Family III. 

Genus Coua Cuvier 

Centropus Illiger 
Diplopterus Boie 

Family IV. 

Genus Crotophaga Linnaeus 

Carpococcyx G. R. Gray 
Zanclostomus Swainson 
Dasylophus Swainson 

Family V. 

Genus Cuculus Linnaeus 

Oxylophus Swainson 


Geococcyx Wagler 


C nitrides Puc heron 
Piraya Lesson 
Coccyzus VieiUot 


Phoenicopfiaus Vieillot 
Rhinortha Vigors 
Scythrops Latham 


Eudynamys Vigors ami 
Hors field 

Order IV. Columbae 
Tribe I. Columbidae 
Family I. Treroninac 
Genus Ptilonopus Swainson Treron Vieillot 


Family II. Columbinse 

Genus Carpophaga Selby Ectopistes Swainson 

Columba Linnseus Macropygia Swainson 

Lopholaimus Swainson (Ena Selby 

Geopelia Swainson Turtur Selby 

Order V. Gallinse 

Tribe IV. Tetraonidse 

Family IV. Tetraoninse 
Genus Tetrao Linnaeus 

Sub- Genus Bonasa Stephens Lagopus Brisson 

Family V. PterocUnse 

Genus Pterocles Temminck Syrrhaptes Illiger 

Order VII. GraU^e 

Tribe 11. Ardeidae 

Family III. Ardeinse 

Subfamily II Latirostri 
Genus Cancroma Linnaeus Platalea Linnaeus 



Family IV. Ciconinse 

Genus Anastomus Bonnini Ciconia Brisson 

Dromas Pavkull 

Order VIII. Anseres Linnseus 

Tribe I. Anatidae 

Family I. PhcBnicopterinse 

Genus Phoenicopterus Linnseus 

Family II. Plectropterinse 

Genus Anseranus Lesson 

Sarkidiornis Byton 

Plectropterus Leach 

Chenalopex Stephens 

Family III. 


Genus Cereopsis Latham 

Nettapus Brandt 

Bernicla Stephens 

Anser Barrere 

Family IV. 


Genus Cygnus Linnaeus 

Family V. 


Genus Dendrocygne Swainson 

Dafila Leach 

Casarka Bonaparte 

Pterocryanea Bonaparte 

Tadorna Leach 

Chaulelamus Swainson 

Mareca Stephens 

Spatula Boie 

Aix Boie 

Malacorhynchus Swainson 

Querquedula Stephens 

Cairina Fleming 

Anas linnseus 

Family VL 


Genus Branta Boie 

Eniconetta G. R. Gray 

Fuligula Stephens 

Hymenolaimus G. R. Gray 

Clangida Fleming 

Micropterus Lesson 

Nyroca Fleming 

SomcUeria Leach 

Harelda Leach 

Oidemia Fleming 

Cmnptolaimiis G. R. Gray 


Family VII. Erismaturinse 

Genus Erismatura BonPuparte Nesonetta G. R. Gray 
Thalassiornis Eyton Biziura Leach 

Family VIII. Merginse 

Genus Mergus Linnseus Merganetta Gould 

Mergellus Selby 

Tribe II. Colymbidse 
Family I. Colymbinse 
Genus Colymbus Linngeus 

Family II. Podicepinse 
Genus Podiceps Latham Podilymbus Lesson 

Tribe III. Alcidse 

Family I. Alcinse 

Genus Alca Linnseus Utamania Ray 

Fratercula Brisson Mergulus Ray 

Six plates with figures hthographed on stone and drawn 
by Captain Brown, and numbered I. to VI. appear to re- 
present another venture. These are unaccompanied by 
letterpress or wrapper, so that it is merely a guess that they 
may represent an item " Ornithology, Part I., Captain Thomas 
Brown. London, 1827." 

The first plate shows four figures : the heading is Meeops 
(Bee-Eater). 1. Oularis, Red-throated. 2. Apiaster, European, 
3. Coerulocephalus, Blue-headed. 4. Malimbicus, Mahmbic. 

The second plate has five figures : the heading is Picus 
(Woodpecker). 1. 5ra2;^7^ens^s, Brazihan. 2. Principalis, White- 
billed. 3. Pileatus, Pileated. 4. Major. Greater Spotted. 
5. Minimus, Least. 

The third plate has seven figures : the heading is Trochilus 
(Humming Bird). 1. Mmm-MS, Least, Male. 2. I)o. Do. Female. 
3. Colubris, Red-throated, Male. 4. Colubris, Red-throated, 
Female. 5. Pella, Topaz-throated. 6. Multicolor, Harhquin. 
7. Superbus, Stripe-cheeked. 


The fourth plate has six figures : the heading is Alcedo 
(Kingfisher). 1. Erithica, Red-headed. 2. Chlorocephala, Green- 
headed. 3. Pusilla, Minute. 4. UUramarina, Ultramarine. 
5. Ispida, Common. 6. Atricapilla, Black-capped. 

The fifth is a single figure, Strix-nyctea, Snowy Owl. Male. 

The sixth shows one bird only, Mycteria australis, Austra- 
lasian Jabiru. This set is uncoloured, but probably some 
coloured copies exist and there may be also some letterpress. 

This note has been written to draw attention to the possi- 
bility of some more copies existing as odd unrecognised parts, 
and details are requested. 

To Dr. W. M. TattersaU and Mr. T. A. Coward, M.Sc, 
the thanks of ornithologists generally are due, and we here 
especially thank them for their assistance in this matter, and 
to the latter for allowing us to use and acquire the parts, as 
by their means we have been able to build up the sequence 
as far as it has gone. 


Austral Avian Record 

Is published at irregular intervals, about four times 
per year, in parts of about 24 pages each, and 
often with a coloured Plate ; eight parts form 
a volume. Price per volume 12/- post free. 

The "Austral Avian Record" contains : 

1. Discussions regarding the relationships and ranges of 

species and subspecies of particular genera, especially 
those which will not be dealt with in the immediate 
future in Mathews's *' Birds of Australia," or those 
that have been. 

2. Revision of what has been published in the " Birds of 

Australia," when accession of material and new facts 
necessitate such revision. 

3. Description of new forms. 

4. Discussions regarding nomenclature. 

5. Supplements to the " Reference List of the ' Birds of 

Australia.* " 

6. Dates of Publication of works about which any doubt 


Australian Agents : — Melbourne, Melville & Mullen 
Proppietapy Limited ; Sydney, Angus & Robeptson 
Limited ; Adelaide, E. S. Wigg & Son ; Brisbane, 
Watson, Fepguson & Co. Limited ; Launceston, 
Birehall & Sons; Perth, E. S. Wigg & Son. 

H. F. & G. WITHERBY, 326, High Holborn, W.C.I. 





VOL, IV. No. 8. 


AtrsTBAL Avian Museum, Faib Oak, Hants, England 


Subscription per Volume 12/- Net. 

H. F. & G. WITHERBY, 326 High Holborn, London, W.C.I 

May 22nd. 1922. 





abdiraii, Ciconia, 141. 

, Sphenorynchus, 141. 

Acanthagenys rufogularis, 105. 
Acanthisitta chloris, 62. 
Acanthiza ewingii, 112. 

flaviventris, 112. 

— ■ — ■ inornata, 97. 
— — iredalei, 97. 

lineata, 97. 

nana, 97. 

pallida, 137. 

pusilla, 97. 

uropygialis, 97. 

Acanthochaera chrysoptera, 105. 
Acanthorhynchus superciliosus, 103. 

tenuirostris, 103. 

Acanthornis magnus, 98. 
Aecipiter, 186. 

cirrhocephalus, 83. 

cooperi, 179. 

Acrocephalus palustris, 163. 
Actitis. 125, 129. 

hypoleucus, 72. 

acuminata, Heteropygia, 123. 
acuminatus, Limnocinclus, 55, 72. 
acuta, Dafila, 181. 
acuticauda, PcEphila, 106. 
acutirostris, Heteraloclia, 64. 
Adamastor cinereus, 51, 67, 111. 
adscitus, Platycercus, 85. 
^chmorhynchus, 129. 
Jligintha temporalis, 106, 116. 
^gotheles cristata, 89, 117. 
£equinoctialis, Priofinus, 111. 

, Procellaria, 51. 

J^strelata lessoni, 51, 67. 
affinis, Cinnyris, 174. 

, Melithreptus, 102. 

, Sitta, 158. 

, — — csesia, 158. 

africanus, Podioa, 175. 

, Pteropus, 174, 175. 

Agrodroma, 188. 
Aidemasyne modesta, 106. 
Ailurnedus crassirostris, 107. 

Ailui'oedus maculosus, 9. 

melanotus, 107. 

Aix, 192. 

ajaya, Platalea, 179. 

Alauda, 188. 

— ■ — fringillai'ia, 158. 

— — leucoptera, 158. 

noviBzelandiaj var ^., 150. 

rufescens, 159. 

sibirica, 158. 

— — ■ tigrina, 159. 

yeltoniensis, 158. 

alba, Crocethia, 113. 
— • — ■, Trynga, 26. 
— — , Tyto, 84. 

-modesta, Egretta, 154. 

yarrellia, Motacilla, 132, 140. 

albata, Sittella, 10. 

Albatross, Light-mantled Sooty, 52. 

, Royal, 52. 

, Snowy, 52, 68. 

, Sooty, 52, 68. 

, Wandering, 52, 68. 

— ■ — ■, White-capped, 68. 
alberti, Harriwhitea, 90. 
albicilla, Certhiparus, 63. 
albifacies, Poecilochyas, 9. 
— ■ — -, Sceloglaux, 60. 
albifrons, Anarhj^nchu.?. 152. 
— , Anser, 181. 
— — , Ephthianura, 96. 

, Merops, 118, 137, 145. 

, Purnella, 103. 

, Saxicola, 160. 

, Sternula, 70. 

albilineata, Dorothina, 104. 
albipennis, Petrophassa, 78, 
albistriata, Chlidonias, 54. 
albiventer, Neochmia, 107. 
albiventris, Zosterops, 101. 
albivitta, Procelsterna, 149. 

, cerulea, 135. 

albofrontatus, Hapolorhynchus, 63. 
albogularis, Conopophila, 103. 
. , Nezozosterops, 110. 



albosignata, Eudyptula, 49. 
albiTs, Casmerodius, 59, 81. 

, Leucanous, 54, 110. 

, Porphyrio, 109. 

Alca, 193. ' 

Alcedo atricapilla, 194. 

■ azurea, 120. 

chlorocephala, 194. 

erithica, 194. 

ispida, 194. 

pusilla, 194. 

liltramarina, 1 94. 

Alcyone aziirea, 89, 116. 

alecto, Piezorhynchus, 94. 

Alectura latliami, 77. 

alexanderi, Geobasileus chrysorrhons, 

alexandra', Northipsitta, 86. 
Alisteranus einctus, 106. 
alisteri, Duleiornis, 96. 

, Fregettornis, 108. 

■ , Samuela, 95. 

Alisterornis lanioides, 93. 
Alistems scapularis, 85, 116, 139. 
alligator, Leucotreron, 79. 
alpestris, Octocris, 181. 
Alphachlamydera cerviniventris, 107. 
Alphacincla woodwardi, 99. 
Alphatiirnia pyrrhothorax, 77. 
velox, 77. 

alpina, Erolia, 123. 

alpinus, Turdus, 160. 

altera, Motacilla, 132. 

amabilis, Leggcornis, 98. 

, Zenaida, 179. 

Amaurodryas vittata, 92. 

Anaaurornis moluccaniis, 76. 

americana, Loxia, 181. 

, Recurvirostra, 181. 

americanns, Regulus, 179. 

Ammodramns, 187. 

Amoropelia, 164. 

ampelinus, Corvns, 140. 

Ampelis garrulus, 180. 

Amytis goydei-i, 9. 

anasthetus, Melanosterna, 70. 

analoga, Ptilotina, 103. 

Anarhynehus albifrons, 152. 

frontalis, 56. 

Anas, 192. 

clypeata, 135. 

cygnus, 113. 

■ ferruginea,, 153. 

hrota, 155. 

media fera, 1 33. 

nyroca, 136. 

. obscnra, 153. 

Anas rufa, 136. 

rutila, 153. 

• ■ superciliosa, 59, 80. 

Anastomus, 192. 
Anatica, 142, 143. 
aneeps, Fringilla, 132. 
anchinga, Plotns, 180. 
Ancylochikis, 129. 
— ■ — subarquatus, 123. 
Angroyan cyanopterus, 99, 116. 
Anhinga nova^hoUandife, 53, 69. 
Anous cinereus, 135, 149, 150. 

stolidus, 54, 70. 

Anser, 142, 192. 

albifrons, 181. 

Ajiseranas semipalmata, 79, 166. 
Anseranus, 183, 192. 
antarctica, Priocella, 51, 67. 

, Thalassoica, 51. 

antarcticns, Lopholaimns, 79. 
Anteliotringa, 129. 

tenuirostris, 71. 

Anthocha^ra lunulata, 147. 
Anthocoera, 169. 
anthopepliis, Polytelis, 86. 
Anthophagus, 172. 

cincinnatus, 174. 

olivaceus, 174. 

Anthornis melanura, 63. 
Anthus grayi, 150. 

novfeseelandifc, 150. 

phillipsi, 151. 

— pratensis, 169. 

antipodes, Megadyptes, 50. 
antiquorum, Phcenicopterus ruber, 154 
Aphelocephala castaneiventris, 100. 

leucopsis, 1 00. 

pectoi'alis, 100. 

apiaster, Merops, 193. 
Aplonis fuscus, 109, 110. 
approximans. Circus, 60, 83, 167 
Aprosmictus erythropterus, 86. 
Aptenodytes chrysoeome, 145. 

crestata, 146. 

crestatus, 137. 

■ patagoniea,, 50, 66. 

Apteryx australis, 58. 

haasti, 58. 

• oweni, 58. 

Aquila, 185. 

Ara, 189. 

Arara carolinensis, 179. 

aretica, Priofinus, 111. 

Ardea cinerea, 59. 

stellaris, 135, 162. 

arenaria, Calidris, 123. 
Arenaria interpres, 56, 74. 



argentatus, Larus, 158. 
argenticeps, Philemon, lOo. 
ariel, Fregata, 53, 68. 

, Lagenoplastes, 91. 

Arquatella, 125, 129. 

maritima, 123. 

Arremon, 187. 
iVrtamus leucorynchus, 99. 
aruensis, Tonophoyx, 81. 
arundinacea, Salicaria, 162. 

, Sylvia, 162. 

Ashbyia lovensis, 96. 
asiaticus, Xenorhynchua, 81. 
assimilis. Circus, 83. 

, Micropca, 9. 

, Puffinus, 50, 67. 

Astur, 186. 

ater, Mesocarbo, 53, 69. 

, Parus sylvestris, 133. 

aterrimus, Probosciger, 87. 

, Psittaciis, 142. 

Athene, 186. 
atra, Fuhca, 57, 76. 
atrata, Chenopis, 80. 
atricapilla, Alcedo, 194. 

, Parus, 132. 

atricapillus, Mehthreptus, 102. 

, Parus, 180. 

Atrichornis rvifescens, 91. 
atrogularis, ffinanthe deserti, 160. 
aucklandica, Coenocorypha, 55. 

, Nesonetta, 59. 

audax, Uroaetus, 83, 116. 
auralentus, Picus, 140. 
Aurephthianura aurifrons, 96. 

crocea, 96. 

auriceps, Cyanorhamphus, 61. 
aui'icularis, Otogyps, 180. 
aurifrons, Aurephthianura, 96. 
Australasia novtehollandia3, 167. 
austrahs, Apteryx, 58. 

, Austranthus, 105. 

, Austrotis, 75. 

— — -, Calamoherpe, 136. 

, Chenogeranus, 166, 184. 

, Conopoderas, 96. 

, Eopsaltria, 93. 

, Erismatura, 80. 

, Gallirahus, 57. 

, Larus, 135, 152. 

, Miro, 62. 

, Mycteria, 194. 

, Nyroca, 59, 80. 

, Pandion hahietos, var., 136. 

, Peltohyas, 75. 

, Promergus, 59. 

, Rostratula, 71. 

australis mellori, Conopoderas, 136. 
Austranthus australis, 105. 

nova^seelandias, 64. 

Austrartanaus cinereus, 99. 
Austrodicasum hirundinaceum, 101. 
Austropitta versicolor, 90. 
Austrotis australis, 75. 
Austroturnix castanota, 77. 

oHvh, 77. 

Avicida, 186. 

Avocet, Red-necked, 56, 73. 
Avoset, American, 181. 
Aythya ferina, 167. 
azurea, Alcedo, 120. 
, Alcyone, 89, 116. 

Babbler, 96. 

, Chestnut-crowned, 96. 

, White-browed, 96. 

bsetica, Calandrella rulescens, 159. 
Baltimore, Black and Yellow, 180. 
baltimore, Yephantes, 180. 
banksii, Calyptorhynchus, 86, 117. 
barnardi, Barnardius, 85. 
Barnardius barnardi, 85. 

zonarius, 85. 

Bartramia, 124, 125, 129. 

longicauda, 72. 

basalis, Chalcites, 88. 
Bastard nachtigall, 131, 133. 
Bathilda ruficauda, 106. 
bathurstii, Psittacus, 142. 
baudinii, Zanda, 86. 
Baumklette, kleine, 132. 
Baza, 186. 
Bee-eater, 89. 

, Blue-headed, 193. 

■, European, 193. 

■, Hooded, 118. 

, Malimbic, 193. 

, Red-throated, 193. 

, Variegated, 118. 

, Wattled, 118. 

, White -fronted, US. 

Belcliera rosea, 92. 

belcheri, Heteroprion, 51, 68. 

Bell-Bird, 63. 

, Crested, 100, 112. 

Bell Minah, 105. 
bell us, Porphyrio, 76. 

, Zonasginthus, 106. 

bengalensis, Thalasseus, 70. 
bennetti, Corvus, 108. 
Bergamsel, 132. 
Bergfinke, 132. 
bergii, Tlialasseus, 54, 70. 
Bergsperling, 132. 



berigora, leracidea, 82, IIG. 
Berneyornis strenuus, 84. 
Bernicla, 192. 

hrota, 1 55. 

bewickii, Cygnus, 179. 

. Troglodytes, 180. 

bichenovii, Steganopleura, 106. 
bicinctus, Cirrepidesmus, 56. 

, Nesoceryx, 74. 

bicolor, Myristicivora, 79. 
Bittern, 81. 

, Black-backed, 59. 

— , Little, 59, 81. 

, Little Mangrove, 81. 

, Red Maagrove, 81. 

Bizmra, 183, 193. 

lobata, 80. 

Blackbird, 109. 

, Grey-headed, 110. 

BlagTus, 136, 147. 
Bleikehlchen, 132. 
Blue-Bonnett, 85. 
Bohemian Waxwing, 180. 
Bonasa, 191. 
bonelh, Falco, 167. 

, Pseudaatvis, 167. 

borealis, Lanius, 180. 
Botaurus poiciloptilus, 59, 81. 
bourkii, Neopsephotus, 85. 
Bowdleria punctata, 63. 

rufescens, 63. 

Bower-Bird, Fawn-breasted, 107. 

, Golden, 107. 

, Great, 107. 

, Satin, 107. 

, Spotted, 107. 

■ , Tooth-billed, 107. 

boweri, Bowyeria, 99. 

Bowyeria boweri, 99. 

brachydactyla, Calandrella, 158. 

brachyptera, Sphenura, 116. 

Brachypternus, 189. 

brachypterus, Galliralkxs, 57, 

bracteatus, Dicruropsis, 107. 

Brandeule, 132. 

Branta, 192. 

leueopsis, 155. 

braziliensis, Picus, 193. 

brevipes, Heteractitis, 72, 112. 

brevirostris, Microcarbo, 53. 

, Smicrornis, 92. 

Bristle Bird, 98. 

, Rufous, 98. 

britannica, Sitta ca9sia, 158. 

broadbenti, Maccoyornis, 98. 

Broadbentia flava, 104. 

Brolga, 75. 

Bronze-Wing, 78. 

Brush, 78. 

Bruchigavia melanorhyncha, 55.: 

novsehollandise, 54, 71, 135. 

brunnea, CoUuricincla, 99. 

, Sylvia, 163. 

brunneicauda, Microeca, 91. 
brunneopygia, Drymodes, 95. 
brunneus, Pyrrholsemus, 97. 
Brush-Turkey, 77. 
Brustwenzel, 132. 
Bubo, 186. 

virginiana, 180. 

Budgerygar, 84. 
Budytes flava, 105. 
Bulestes mentalis, 100. 

• torquatus, 100. 

bulleri, Thalassarche, 52. 

, Thyelloclroma, 50. 

Bullfinch, Pine, 181. 

Bunte Rohrhenne, 134. 

Bunting, Lapland Long-spur, 179. 

Burhinus magnirostris, 71. 

Bush-Chat, Desert, 96. 

Bush-Lark, 106. 

Bustard, 75. 

Butcher Bird, Black, 100. 

, Black-backed, 100. 

, Black-throated, 100. 

, Collared, 100. 

Buteo, 185. 

melanosternon, 167, 184. 

pennsylvanicus, 179. 

poecilonotus, 147. 

Butor stellaris, 162. 
Butorides rogersi, 81. 

striata, 81. 

Buzzard, Black-breasted, 82, 184. 
, Broad-winged, 179. 

Cabalus niodestus, 57. 
Cacatua, 189. 

gymnopis, 10. 

Cachinna, 185. 

Cacomantis pyrrhophanus, 87. 

rubricatus, 87. 

Cactornis, 187. 

■ scandens, 149. 

caerulea, Halobsena, 51, 68. 
cffiruleus, Hirundolanius, 136, 151.' 
CEesia affinis, Sitta, 158. 

britannica, Sitta, 158. 

Cairina, 192. 

cairnsensis, Ethelornis, 92. 

Calamanthus campestris, 96. 

fuliginosus, 96. 

Calamoherpe australis, 136, 



Calainospiza, 187. 

Calandrella brachydactyla, 158. 

fringillai-ia, 158. 

minor rufescens, 159. 

• rufescens baetica, 159. 

cheleensis, 159. 

heinei, 159. 

kukunoorensis, 159. 

• — leucophaea, 159. 

minor, 159. 

persica, 159. 

polatzeki, 159. 

rufescens, 159. 

^ seebohmi, 159. 

Calandritis minor, 159. 
caledonicus, Nycticorax, 59, 81. 

■ , Platycercus, 85. 

Caleya megarhyncha, 99. 
Calidris, 125, 129. 

arenaria, 123. 

calidris, Tringa, 123. 
Calidritinje, 128, 129. 
Callocorydon fimbriatus, 86. 
CallcEas cinerea, 64. 

wilsoni, 64. 

Caloptilotis macleayana, 104. 
Calyptorhynchiis, 189. 

banksii, 86, 117. 

Camarhynchus, 187. 
canipbelli, Hypoleucus, 53. 
Campbellornis personatus, 99. 

superciliosus, 99. 

Campephilus, 189. 
campestris, Calamanthus, 96. 
Campethera, 189. 
Camptolaimus, 192. 
canadensis, Tetrao, 179. 
canariensis, Fringilla, 152. 

, coelebs, 152. 

Cancroma, 191. 
cantator, Ethelornis, 92. 
canus major, Larus, 157. 
Canutina?, 125, 128. 
Canutus canutus, 55, 71, 123. 
Capella, 129, 131. 

coelestis, 131, 133. 

gallinago, 131. 

capensis, Petrella, 51, 67. 

, Turnagra, 63. 

Capito, 189. 

capito, Tregellasia, 93. 

carbo, Phalacrocorax, 53, 69. 

Cardinalis, 187. 

cardinalis, Fringilla, 133. 

Carduelis, 187. 

carneipes, Hemipuffinus, 51, 67. 

cai'olinensis, Arara, 179. 

Carphibis spinicollis, 81. 
Carpococcyx, 190. 
Carpodacus, 188. 

rosea, 164. 

Carpophaga, 191. 
carteri, Eremiornis, 97. 
Carterornis leucotis, 94. 
carunculata, Coleia, 64, 105, 116. 
carunculatus, Creaclion, 64, 170. 

, Hypoleucus, 53. 

, Merops, 169, 170. 

, Sturnus, 169. 

Caryocatactes nucifraga, 162. 
Casarca tadornoides, 80. 

variegata, 58. 

Casarka, 192. 
Casmerodius, 112. 

albus, 59, 81. 

caspia, Hydroprogne, 54, 70. 
Cassowary, 66. 

Van Diemen's Land, 174. 

castanea. Virago, 59, 80. 
castaneiventris, Aphelocephala, 100. 

, Vidgenia, 88. 

castaneothorax, Donacola, 106. 
castaneoventris, Eulabeornis, 76. 
castanota, Austroturnix, 77. 
castanotis, Tseniopygia, 106. 
castanotvun, Cinclosoma, 95. 
castor, Mergus, 180. 
Casuarius casuarius, 66. 

diemenianus, 174, 175. 

Cat Bird, 107. 

, Spotted, 107. 

Catamblyrhynchus, 188. 
Caterpillar-catcher, 95, 110. 
Caterpillar-eater, 95. 

, Pied, 95. 

Catharaeta, 112. 

lonnbergi, 55, 71. 

maccormicki, 55. 

Cathartes, 185. 

Catoptropelicanus conspicillatus, 53, 

Catoptrophorus, 124, 125, 129. 
Caturates fuscus, 162. 

giaucus, 162. 

— — maximus, 162. 

naevius, 162. 

caudacuta, Hirxmdo, 138. 

, Pallenia, 138. 

caudacutiis, Hirundapus. 62, 90. 
cauta, Diomedella, 52, 68. 

, Hylacola, 95. 

cecilige, Corvus, 108. 

Celeus. 189. 

cenchroides, Cerchneis, 60, 82. 



Centropus, 190. 

Centurus, 190. 

Cerchneis cenchroides, 60, 82. 

Cereopsis, 192. 

novsehollandi<'«, 79. 

Certhia familiaris, 180. 

paeifica, 174. 

pusilla, 132. 

Certhidea, 187. 

Certhilauda, 188. 

Certhionyx variegatus, 103. 

Certhipai'us albicilla, 63. 

cerulea, Procelsterna, 54, 109, 110. 

albivitta, Procelstenia, 135. 

cerviniventris, Alphachlamydera, 107. 
■ — ■ — , Poecilodryas, 92. 
Chalcites basalis, 88. 

parvirostris, 148. 

chalconotus, Hypoleucus, 53. 
Chalcophaps chrysochlora, 78. 
chalcoptera, Phaps, 78. 
Channel-Bill, 88. 
Charadrius, 112. 

cucullatus, 74. 

Charm osyna, 189. 

Chat, Orange-fronted, 96. 

— , Tricoloured, 96. 

, White-fronted, 96. 

, Yellow-breasted, 96. 

chathamensis, Hemiphaga, 58. 

Chaulelasmus, 192. 

cheleensis, Calandrella rufescens, 159. 

Chenalopex, 192. 

Cheniscus coromandehaniis, 79. 

pulchelius, 79. 

Chenogeranus, 183. 

austrahs, 166, 184. 

Chenonetta jubata, 80, 116. 
Chenopis atrata, 80. 
Cheramoeca leucosternum ,91. 
chinensis, Excalfactoria, 77. 
chionoptera, Diomedea, 52, 68. 
Chlamydera maculata, 107. 
Chlamydodera occipitalis, 9. 

orient alis, 9. 

Chhdonias, 112. 

albi striata, 54. 

leucopareia, 70. 

leucoptera, 54, 70. 

chloris, Acanthisitta, 62. 

, Sauropatis, 89. 

chlorocephala, Alcedo, 194. 
chlorolepidota, Eutelipsitta, 87. 
Chloronerpes, 190. 
chloronotus, Ethelornis, 92. 
chlororhj'nchus, Thalassarche, 52, 68. 
chlorotis, Elasmonetta, 59; 

Chondestes, 187. 
Chough, White -winged, 108. 
Chroicocephalus franklinii, 156. 
Chrysauchcena hiimeralis, 78. 
chrysocephahis, Sericulus, 107, 137. 142. 
chrysochlora, Chalcophaps, 78. 
chrysocilla, Emberiza, 160. 
Chrysocolaptes, 189. 
chrysocome, Aptenodytes, 145. 

, Eudyptes, 146. 

chrysogaster, Neonanodes, 84. 
chrj'solophns, Eudyptes, 146. 
chrysophrys, Emberiza, 160. 
chrysops„Paraptilotis, 103. 
chrysoptera, Acanthocha3ra, 105. 

•, Littlera, 91. 

, Neositta, 101. 

chrysopterygius, Psephotellus, 85. 
Chrysoptilus, 189. 

chrysorrhous alexanderi, Geobasileus, 

Geobasileus, 97. 

chrysostoma, Thalassarche, 52, 68. 
chrysostomus, Neonanodes, 84. 
Chrysotis, 189. 
Chthonicola sagittata, 97. 
Chubbia, 128. 
Ciconia, 192. 

abdimii, 141. 

cincinnatus, Anthophagus, 174. 
Cinclorhamphus crui-alis, 96. 
Cinclosoma castanotum, 95. 

punctatum, 95. 

Cinclus morinellus, 181. 
cincta, Notiomystis, 63. 
cinctus, Alisteranus, 106. 

■ , Erythrogonys, 75. 

cinerea, Ardea, 59. 

, Calteas, 64. 

, Dromolcea, 144. 

, (Enanthe, 144. 

, Priofinus, 111. 

, Sterna, 135, 149. 

, Stohda, 135, 149, 150. 

, Struthidea, 108. 

, Terekia, 72. 

cinerei Irons, Heteromyias, 9. 

, Iredaleornis, 92. 

cinereus, Adamastor, 51, 67, IJl 

• , Anoiis, 135, 149, 150. 

, Austrartamus, 99. 

, Larus, 162. 

, Poliolimnas, 76. 

cinnamonea, Samuela, 95, 
Cinnyris affinis, 174. 
Circaetus, 185. 
Circus, 186, 



Circus appi'oximans, 60, 83, 1G7. 

assimilis, 83. 

■ juxta, 167. 

'■ gouldi, 167. 

inexpectatus, 167. 

juxta, 167. 

Cirrepidesmus bicinctus, 56. 

mongolus, 74. 

cirrhoceplialus, Accipiter, 83. 
Cissa, 187. 
Cissomela nigra, 102. 

pect oralis, 102. 

Cissopsis, 187. 
Cisticola exilis, 96. 
Cladorhynchus leucocephalus, 73. 
clamosa, Ralicinta, 91. 
Clangula, 142, 192. 
claudi, Glychichaera, 103. 
clavigula, Trochilus, 148. 
Climacteris erythrops, 101. 

leucophsea, 101. 

superciliosa, 101. 

clivicola, Hirundo, 162. 
clypeata. Anas, 13-5. 

, Rhynchoplatus, 135. 

, Spatula, 135. 

Coachwhip Bird, 95. 

, Black-throated, 96. 

Coccothraustes, 187. 
Coccyzus, 190. 
cocinea, Pyrrhula, 162. 
Cockatoo, Banksian, 86. 

, Black, 86. 

, Blood-stained, 86. 

, Cook's, 174. 

, Gang-Gang, 122. 

, Glossy, 86. 

, Palm, 87. 

, White, 86. 

, White-tailed, Black, 86. 

cockerelli, Heniiptilotis, 104. 
coelebs, Hippolais, 131. 

, Motacilla, 131, 133. 

canadensis, Fringilla, 152. 

tintillon, Fringilla, 152. 

coelestis, Capella, 131, 133. 

, Gallinago, 130. 

, Scolopax, 130, 131, 132, 133, 

Coenocorypha, 125, 128. 

aucklandica, 55. 

coerulea, Procellaria, 165. 
coeruleocephala, Merops, 193. 
Colaptes, 190. 

Colcloughia melanogaster, 77. 
Coleia carunculata., 64, 105, 116. 
Collocalia terra? regina-, 10. 
Colluricincla brvmnea, 99. 

Colluricincla harmonica, 99. 

rufiventris, 99. 

colubris, Trochilus, 193. 
Columba, 191. 

elegans, 142. 

■ fasciata, 181. 

forcipata, 149. 

gallapagina, 149. 

gallapaginus, 149. 

lawsonii, 142. 

nebui, 149. 

sylvestris, 133. 

tahitina, 149. 

turtur, 164. 

columbarius, Hypotriorchis, 180. 
Cokmibi-gallina gallapogcensis, 149. 
Colyrhbus, 113, 193. 
— ■ — • glaciaUs, 179. 
compilator, Emberiza, 131. 
concinna, Glossopsitta, 87, 116. 
ConigTavea parvula, 99. 
connivens, Hieracoglaux, 83. 
Conopoderas australis, 96. 

mellori, 136. 

Conopophaga rufogularis, 103. 
Conopophila albogularis, 103. 
conspicillatus, Catoptropelicanus, 53, 

Convirus, 189. 
cookii, Cookilaria, 51, 67. 

, Psittacus, 167, 174. 

Cookilai'ia cookii, 51, 67. 
cooperi, Accipiter, 179. 
Coot, 57, 76. 

, Bald, 76. 

, Blue Bald, 76. 

Coprotheres pomarinus, 71. 

Coracopsis, 188. 

Corcorax melanorhamphus, 108. 

Corella, 86. 

Corethrura, 152. 

dimidiata, 152. 

elegans, 152. 

Coriphilus, 189. 
Cormorant, Black, 69. 

, Black-faced, 69. 

, Little, 69. 

, Little Black, 69. 

, Pied, 69, 111. 

Corncrake, 57, 76. 

corniculatus, Tropidorhynchus, 105. 

coromandelianus, Cheniscus, 79. 

coronata.'Rosina, 98. 

coronatus, Picus, 140. 

Coronica fuliginosa, 170. 

coronoides, Corvus, 108. 

Corvus ampelinus, 140. 



Corvus bennetti, 108. 

coronoides, 108. 

cecilise, 108. 

melanogaster, 120. 

paradoxus, 169, 170. 

sanguinicollis, 140. 

Cosmaerops ornatus, 89, 117. 
Cosmopelia elegans, 78. 
Coturnix novae zealandia^, 58. 

pectoralis, 77. 

Coua, 190. 

Coucal, 88. 

coxeni, Opopsitta, 87. 

Cracticus nigrogularis, 100. 

rufescens, 9. 

Crake, Little, 76. 

, Spotless, 76. 

, Spotted, 76. 

• , White-browed, 76. 

Cranellus, 151. 

Craspedophora magnifica, 108. 
crassirostris, Ailuro^dus, 107. 
cratitius, Lichenostomus, 104. 
Creadion caruncvilatus, 64, 170. 

dilophus, 170. 

paradoxus, 169. 

paradoxus, 169. 

— — westernensis, 169. 

Creeper, 63. 

, Common, 180. 

crestata, Aptenodytes, 146. 
erestatus, Aptenodytes, 137. 
Crex crex, 57, 76. 
cristata. ^gotheles, 89, 117. 

, Eudyptes, 146. 

cristatum, Sphenostoma, 100. 
cristatus, Evidyptes, 137. 

, cristatus, 147. 

, Garrulus, 179. 

, Podiceps, 58, 76. 

, Turdus, 112. 

cristatus, Eudyptes, 147. 

■ filholi, Eudyptes, 147. 

interjectus, Eudyptes, 147. 

moseleyi, Eudyptes, 147. 

serresianus, Eudyptes, 147. 

cristaurea, Regulus, 162. 

Crithagra, 188. 

crocea, Aui'ephthianura, 96. 

, Ephthianura, 9. 

Crocethia, 112, 125, 129. 

alba, 113. 

leucophsea, 72, 113. 

Crossbill, American, 181. 
Crotophaga, 190. 
Crow, Black -breasted, 120. 
, Blue-wattled, 64. 

Crow, Northern, 108. 

, Orange -wattled, 64. 

, Small-billed, 108. 

Crow-Shrike, Black, 100. 

, Black-winged, 100. 

, Grey, 100. 

, Pied, 100. 

cruralis, Cinclorhamphus, 96. 
Crypsirina, 187. 
Ctenanas eytoni, 58, 80. 
Cuckoo, Black-eared, 88. 

, Broad-billed Bronze, 88. 

, Bronze, 88. 

, Brush, 87. 

, Chestnut-breasted, 88. 

, Fantailed, 87. 

, Little Bronze, 88. 

, Long-tailed, 61. 

, Narrow-billed Bronze, 88. 

, Oriental, 61, 87. 

, Palhd, 87. 

, Rufous-breasted Bronze, 88. 

— • — , Shining, 61. 

, Square-tailed, 87. 

Cuckoo-Shrike, Barred, 94. 

, Black-faced, 94. 

, Ground, 94. 

, Little, 63, 94. 

, White-bellied, 94. 

cucuUata, Melanodryas, 92, 136. 
cucuUatus, Charadrius, 74. 
— , Merops, 118. 
Cuculus, 190. 

optatus, 61, 87. 

prionurus, 138, 141. 

Cultrides, 190. 
Cuucuma leucogaster, 83. 
cuneata, Stictopeleia, 78. 
Curlew, 173. 

, Australian, 56, 73. 

— ■ — , Sandpiper, 55, 71. 
Cyanalcyon pyrrhop_ygius, 89. 
cyaneus, Malurus, 98, 116. 
Cyanocorax, 187. 
cyanoleuca, Grallina, 99, 116. 
cyanoleucus, Mastersornis, 94. 
cyanoptera, Loxia, 119. 
cyanopterus, Angroyan, 99, 116. 
cyanopus, Numenius, 56, 73. 
Cyanorhamphus auriceps, 61. 

inalherbi, 61. 

novas zelandia?, 60, 109, 110. 

— — unicolor, 61. 
cyanotis, Gracula, 118, 

, Entomyzon, 105, 116. 

cyanura. Motacilla, 160. 
Cyclopsitta maccoyi, 10. 



Cygnus, 113, 142, 192. 
— — bewickii, 179. 
cygnixs. Anas, 11.3. 
Cymindis, 186. 
Cypselus unicolor, 179. 
Cypsnagi-a, 187. 
Cyrtostomus frenatus, 102. 

Dabchick, 58. 
Dacelo leachi, 89. 

novEeguinetw, 89, 112. 

dactylatra, Parasula, 53, 69. 

, Sula, 113. 

Dafila, 192. 

acuta, 181. 

dannefordi, Nesomiro, 62. 
Darter, Australian, 53, 69. 

, Black-bellied, 180. 

Dasylophus. 190. 

Dasyptilus, 189. 

datUTia major, Turdus, 144. 

daviesianus, Psittacus haematotus, 122. 

Demiegretta greyi, 81. 

matook, 59, 81. 

Dendrobates, 189. 
Dendrocygna javanica, 80. 
Dendroeygne, 192. 
dentirostris, Scenopo'e'etes, 107. 

, Scenopoeas, 9. 


deserti, (Enanthe, 159. 

— albifrons, CEnanthe, 159. 

atrogularis, CEnanthe, 160. 

deserti, CEnanthe, 159. 

desolatus, Heteroprion, 52, 68. 
Diamond Bird, 102. 
Diaphorillas striata, 98. 

textilis, 98. 

Diaphoropterus leucopygius, 110. 
Dicruropsis bracteatus, 107. 
dieffenbachii, Nesolimnas, 57. 
diemenensis, Dromaius, 175. 
diemenianus, Casuarius, 174, 175. 

, Dromaius, 175. 

, Peronista, 166, 175. 

dimidiata, Corethrura, 152. 
Diomedea cliionoptera, 52, 68. 

epomophora, 52. 

exulans, 52, 68. 

Diomedella cauta, 52, 68. 
Diplopterus, 190. 
discolor, Euphema, 168. 

, Lathamus, 84. 

, Psittacus, 168. 

dissimilis, Psephotellus, 85. 
Ditelmatias hardwickii, 55, 71. 
Diver, Great Northern, 179. 

Dollar Bird, 89. 
dominicanus, Larus, 54. 
dominicus, Pluvialis, 56, 74. 
Donacola castaneothorax, 106. 

flaviprymna, 106. 

tliorpei, 106. 

dorotheas, Magnamytis, 99. 
Dorothina albilineata, 104. 

fasciogularis, 104. 

frenata, 104. 

lewinii, 103. 

versicolor, 104. 

■ — — virescens, 104. 
Dotterel, 56, 75. 

, Black-fronted, 74. 

, Double-banded, 56, 74. 

, Hooded, 74. 

, Large Sand, 74. 

, Mongolian Sand, 74. 

— , Oriental, 56, 74. 

, Red-capped, 56, 74. 

, Red-kneed, 75. 

dougalli. Sterna, 70. 

Dove, Barred-shouldered, 78. 

—.Little Green, 78. 

, Spotted-shouldered, 78. 

, Zenaida, 179. 

Dromaius diemenensis, 175. 

diemenianus, 175. 

novaehollandise gunni, 175. 

Dromas, 192. 

Dromiceius nova?hollandia?, 66, 117. 

Dromolsea cinerea, 144. 

Drongo, Spangled, 107. 

dryas, Rhipidura, 9. 

Drymodes brunneopygia, 95 

sLiperciliaris, 95. 

Dryocopus, 189. 
Dubbelschnepfe, 132. 
Duck, Auckland Islands, 59. 

, Black, 80. 

, Blue-billed, 80. 

, Brown, 59. 

, Freckled, 80. 

, Grey, 59. 

, Mountain, 59, 80. 

, Musk, 80. 

, Paradise, 58. 

, Pink-eared, 80. 

, Pintail, 181. 

■ , Plumed Whistling, SO. 

, Ruddy Spinetailed, 181 

■. Whisthng, 58, 80. 

, White-eyed, 59, 80. 

, Wood, 80. 

Ducorpsius sanguineus, 86. 
Dulciornis ahsteri, 96. 



dumetorum, Motacilla, 133. 
Dupetor flavicollis, 81. 
Dyottornis, 169, 170. 
paradoxiis, 105. 

Eagle, Broad-tailed Mountain, 184. 

, Hawk, 83. 

, Little, 83. 

, Wedge-tailed, 83. 

, Whistling, 83. 

, White-bellied Sea, 83. 

Eclectus, 189. 

Ectopistes, 191. 

edwardi, Menura novcehollandiiu, 168. 

Egret, Lesser, 81. 

, Pied, 81. 

, Plumed, 81. 

, White, 81. 

Egretta alba modesta, 1.54. 

garzetta, 8 1 . 

Elanus, 186. 

notatus, 82. 

scriptiis. 82. 

Elasmonetta chlorotihi, -59. 
elegans, Columba, 142. 

, Corethrura, 152. 

, Cosniopeha, 78. 

, Leggeornis, 98. 

, Neonanodes, 84. 

, Platycercns, 85, 116. 

Elseyornis melanops, 74. 
Emberiza, 188. 

ehrysocilla, 160. 

chrysophrys, 160. 

— — compilator, 131. 

minuta, 160. 

piisilla, 160. 

rustica, 160. 

spodocephala, 160. 

Emberizoides, 187. 
Emblema picta, 106. 
Embriza palustris, 131, 133. 

palustris, 133. 

Emu, 66, 121. 

, Dwarf, 66. 

Wren, 121. 

Enicognathus, 189. 
Eniconetta, 192. 
Entoniyzon cyanotis, 105, IIG. 
enuoleator, Strobilophaga, 181. 
Eolophus roseicapillus, 86. 
Eopsaltria australis, 93. 

griseogularis, 93, 147. 

Eos, 189. 
Ephialtes, 186. 
Ephthianvira albifrons, 96. 
crocea, 9. 

epomophora, Diomedea, 52. 
Erana, 188. 
Eremiornis'carteri, 97. 
Ereunetes, 125, 129. 

pusillus, 123. 

Erismatura, 193. 

australis, 80. 

rubida, 181. 

erithica, Alcedo, 194. 
Erolia, 125, 126. 

alpina, 123. 

ferruginea, 55, 71. 

minuta, 123. 

Eroliinai, 123, 124, 125, 128. 
erythrocephala, Myzomela, 102. 
erythrocephalus. Pious, 181. 
Erythrodryas rodinogaster, 91. 
Erythrogonys cinctus, 75. 
Erythropitta macklotii, 90. 
erythrops, Climacteris, 101. 
erythropterus, Aprosmictus, 86. 

■ , Ptistes, 168. 

erythrorhychnus, Larus, 135, 148. 
Erythroscelis, 129. 
Erythrotriorchis radiatus, 83. 
Erythura trichroa, 106. 
Etlielornis cairnsensis, 92. 

cantator, 92. 

chloronotus, 92. 

fuscus, 92. 

levigaster, 92. 

magnirostris, 92. 

mastersi, 92. 

mouki, 92. 

tenebrosus, 92. 

Eudynamis orientalis, 88. 
Eudynamys, 190. 
Eudyptes chrysoforne, 146. 

chrysolophus, 146. 

cristata, 146. 

cristatus, 137. 

• cristatus, 147. 

filhoh, 147. 

interjeetus, 147. 

moseleyi, 147. 

serresianus, 147. 

— pachyrhynchus, 50, 66, 146. 

schlegeH, 50, 66, HI. 

sclateri, 50. 

serresianus, 50, 66, 111, 137, 146. 

Eudyptula albosignata, 49. 

nainor, 49, 66. 

Eulabeornis castaneoventris, 70. 
Euijhema, 188. 

discolor, 168. 

Eupodella vereda, 56, 74. 
Eurhynchus, 142. 



europa?a, Pyri-hula, 162. 

, Riparia, 162. 

FiUrostopus guttatus, 90. 

mystacalis, 90. 

Eurynorhynchus, 125, 129. 

pygmseus, 123. 

Eurystomvis orientalis, 61, 89, 117. 

pacificus, 186, 151. 

Euspiza, 185. 

Eutelipsitta ehlorolepidota, 87. 
ewingii, Acanthiza, 112. 
Excalfactoria chinensis, 77. 
exilis, Cisticola, 96. 
exiniius, Platycercus, 85, 116. 
externa, Pterodroma, 51. 
exiilans, DioiTiedea, 52, 68. 
Eyramitis goyderi, 99. 
eytoni, Ctenanas, 58, 80. 

faloinellus, Platyrhynchus, 71. 

, Plegadis, 60, 81. 

Falco, 186. 

bonelli, 167. 

■ — — hypoleucus, 82. 

leucogaster, 136. 

longipennis, 82. 

palustris, 133. 

Falcon, Black, 82. 

, Black -cheeked, 82. 

, Grey, 82. 

, Little, 82. 

, Pigeon, 180. 

Falcuncukis frontatvis, 100. 

leucogaster, 100. 

familiaris, Certhia, 180. 
Fantail, 93. 

, Black, 63. 

, Black and White, 94, 112. 

, Northern, 94. 

, Pied, 63. 

■, Rufous, 93. 

fasciata, Columba, 181. 
■ — — , Rallina, 152. 

, Urospiza, 83. 

fsjsciatus, Ramsayornis, 103. 
fascinans, Microsca, 91. 
fasciogularis, Dorothina, 104. 
featherstoni, Stictocarbo, 53. 
fera. Anas media, 133. 
ferina, Aythya, 167. 
Fern-Bird, 63. 

, Chatham Islands, 63. 

ferruginea. Anas, 153. 

, EroUa, 55, 71. 

, Lophophaps, 79. 

Ficaria flavescens, 162. 
hippolais, 162. 

Ficaria sylvicola, 162. 
Ficedula pinetorum, 162. 

salicum, 162. 

sylvicola, 162. 

Field-Wren, 96. 

, Little 

, Striated, 96. 

Fig-Bird, 95. 

, Grey-throated, 95. 

— — , Yellow-bellied, 95. 
filholi, Evidyptes cristatus, 147. 
fimbriata, Motacilla, 137, 143. 
fimbriatus, Callocorydon, 86. 

, Psittacus, 122. 

Finch, Banded, 106. 

, Black-throated, 106. 

, Blue-faced, 106. 

, Chestnut-breasted, 106. 

, Chestnut-eared, 106. 

, Crimson, 107. 

, Dim, 106. 

, Fire-tailed, 106. 

, Gouldian, 106. 

, Long-tailed, 106. 

, Masked, 107. 

, Painted, 100. 

, Plum-headed, 106. 

, Red-browed, 106. 

, Red-eared, 106. 

, Red-faced, 106. 

, Spotted-sided, 100. 

, Temporal, 119. 

, White-bellied Crimson, 107. 

, White-breasted, 106. 

, White-headed, 119; 

, Yellow-rumped, 106. 

Finfoot, African, 174. 

, American, 174. 

Finke gemeine, 132. 
Finschia novaeseelandiiv, 63. 
flabellifera, Rhipidura, 63, 93. 
Flamingo, Red, 181. 
flammea, Strix, 180. 
flava, Broadbentia, 104. 

, Budytes, 105. 

flaveolus, Platycercus, 85. 
flavescens, Ficaria, 162. 

■ , Ptilotala, 104. 

; Sylvia, 162. 

flavicollis, Dupetor, 81. 

, Fringilla, 148. 

, Nesoptilotis, 104. 

flavigaster, Kempia, 91. 
flavigula, Myzantha, 105. 
flavipes, Platibis, 82. 

, Tringa, 123. 

flaviprjonna, Donacola, 100. 



flaviventer, Machserirhynchus, 94. 

, Xanthotis, 105. 

flaviventris, Acanthiza, 112. 

• , Sphecotheres, 95. 

flavocincta, Mimeta, 107. 

flavostriata, Ptilotis; 10. 

Fliegenschnapper grosse, 132. 

floccosus, Pycnoptilus, 95. 

Flock-Pigeon, 78. 

Flowerpecker, 101. 

fluminea, Porzana, 76. 

Flycatcher, Black-breasted, 94. 

, Black-faced, 94. 

— — , Broad-billed, 94. 

, Brown, 91. 

— — , Brown-tailed, 91. 

, Frill-necked, 94. 

, Leaden, 94. 

— — , Lemon-breasted, 91. 

, Red-bellied, 119. 

, Restless, 94. 

, Satin, 94. 

, Shining, 94. 

, Spectacled, 94. 

, White-eared, 94. 

Flyeater, 92, 109, 110. 

, Allied, 92. 

, Black-throated, 92. 

, Brown, 92. 

, BLiff-breasted, 92. 

, Dusky, 92. 

, Green-backed, 92. 

, Gulf, 92. 

, Large-billed, 92. 

, Queensland, 92. 

, Singing, 92. 

, White -throated, 92. 

forcipata, Columba, 149. 

, Larus, 149. • 

forsteri, Pachyptila, 166. 
francica, Zoonava, 90. 
franklinii, Chroicocephalus, 156. 

, Larus, 156. 

Fratercula, 193. 
Fregata ariel, 53, 68. 

minor, 52, 68. 

Fregetta tropica, 50, 67. 

tubulata, 67. 

Fregettornis alisteri, 108. 

grallarius, 108. 

insularis, 108. 

royanus, 108. 

frenata, Dorothina, 104. 

, Ptilotis, 10. 

frenatus, Cyrtostomus, 102. 
freycinet, Megapodius, 166. 
Friar-Bird, 105. 

Friar-Bird, Helmeted, 105. 

, Silver-crowned, 105. 

, Yellow -throated, 105. 

Frigate-Bird, 52, 68. 

, Lesser, 53, 68. 

Fringilla, 187. 

■ anceps, 132. 

canariensis, 152. 

cardinalis, 133. 

ccslebs canariensis, 152. 

tintillon, 152. 

flavicollis, 148. 

fusca, 152. 

leiicocephala, 119. 

pumila, 132. 

subcana, 132. 

• temporalis, 119. 

textrix, 141. 

vulgaris, 132. 

• xanthocoUis, 148. 

Fringillaria, 188. 
fringillaria, Alauda, 158. 

, Calandrella, 158. 

Frogrnouth, 88. 

, Large, 88. 

, Marbled, 88. 

-, Plumed, 88. 

frontalis, Anarhynchus, 56. 

, Sericornis, 97. 

frontatus, Falcuncuhis, 100. 

, Lanius, 117. 

fuciphaga, Zoonava, 90. 
Fulica atra, 57, 76. 

fusca, 134. 

rubiginosa, 134. 

variegata, 134. 

fulicarius, Phalaropus, 56. 
fuliginosa, Coronica, 170. 

, Hemichelidon, 144. 

, Muscicapa, 144. 

, — ■ — • sibirica, 144. 

, Rhipidura, 63. 

•, Strepera, 100. 

fuliginosus, Calamanthus, 96. 
— — , Planesticus, 110. 
Fuligula, 192. 

novseseelandise, 59. 

fiinerea, Surnia, 180, 
— , Zanda, 86, 116. 
fusca, Fulica, 134. 

, Motacilla, 132. 

, Fringilla, 152. 

, Paraptilotis, 103. 

, Phcebetria, 52, 68. 

, Querquedula, 162. 

fuscatus, Larus, 149, 150. 
, Onychoprion, 54, 70. 



fuscescens, Hypoleucus, 69. 
fuscus, Aplonis, 109. 110. 

, Caturatis, 162. 

, Ethelornis, 92. 

, Larus, 162. 

•, Microptilotis, 103. 

Gabianus pacificus, 71. 

Galah, 86. 

galbula, Oriolus, 180. 

galerita, Kakatoe 86. 

galinella, Zaporina, 162. 

gallapagina, Columba, 149. 

gallapaginus, Coluniba, 149. 

gallapogoeiisis, Columbi-gallina, 149. 

gallinacea, Irediparra, 75. 

Gallinagine, 125. 

Gallinago, 125, 128, 129, 131. 

coelestis 130. 

gigantea, 129. 

imperialis, 128. 

stricklandi, 128. 

gallinago, Capella, 131. 
Gallinula tenebrosa, 76. 
gallinula, Lymnocryptes, 153, 164. 
Gallinule, White, 109. 
Galliralkis australis, 57. 

brachyterus, 57. 


Gampsonyx, 186. 
Gang-gang, 86. 
Gannet, 54, 69. 

-, Brown, 53, 69. 

\ Masked, 53, 69. 

, Red-legged, 69. 

Garganey-Teal, 80. 
Garrodia nereis, 50. 
garrula, Myzantha, 169. 
Garruhis, 187. 

cristatus, 179. 

garrulus, Ampelis, 180. 
garzetta, Egretta, 81. 
Geciniis, 189. 
gelastes, Larvis, 157. 
Gelochelidon nilotica, 70. 
genei, Larus, 157. 
Geobasileus chrysorrhous, 97. 

alexanderi, 137. 

hedleyi, 97. 

reguloides, 97. 

Geocichla major, 144. 
Geococcyx, 190. 
geoffroyi, Geoffroyus, 86. 
Geoff royus geoffroyi, 86. 
Geopelia, 191. 

placida, 78. 

Geophaps scripta, 78. 

Geophaps smithi, 78. 
Geopsittaeus occidentalis, 84. 
georgianus, Quoyornis, 93. 
Geospiza, 187. 
Gei-ygone olivacea, 92. 
gibberifrons. Virago, 59, 80. 
gigantea, Gallinago, 129. 
giganteus, Macronectes, 52, 68. 
Gilbertornis inornatus, 93. 

rufogularis, 93. 

gilviventris, Xenicus, 62. 
glacialis, Colynibus, 179. 
glandaria minor. Pica, 133. 
Glareola maldi varum, 75. 
glareola, Rhyacophilus, 72, 123. 
glaucodes, Larus, 156. 
glaucoides, Larus, 155, 156. 
giaucus, Cat urates, 162. 

, Larus, 155. 

Gliciphila melanojDS, 103. 
Globicera paeifica, 79. 

rubricera, 79. 

Glossopsitta concinna, 87, 116. 

porphryrocephala. 87. 

pusilla, 87. 

Glottis, 125, 129. 

nebulai'ius, 55, 72. 

Glychichsera claudi, 103. 
Glyciphila subfaseiata, 10. 
Gnat-Catcher, Yellow-tailed, 179. 
godmanae, Raperia, 109. 
Godwit, 55, 72, 173. 

, American, 55. 

, Bari'ed-rumped, 72. 

, Black -tailed, 73. 

goodenovii, Whiteornis, 91. 
Goose, Cape Barren, 79. 

, Laughing, 181. 

, Pied, 79. 

Goose-Crane, Australian, 184. 
Goose-Teal, Green, 79. 

. White-quilled, 79. 

Goshawk, 83. 

, Grey, 83. 

, Red, 83. 

— , White, 83. 

gouldi. Circus juxta, 167. 

, Sterna, 135, 152. 

■, Zosterops, 101. 

gouldife, Poephila, 106. 
goyderi, Amytis, 9. 

, Cyramitis, 99. 

gracilis, Microptilotis, 103. 
Gracula cyanotis, 118. 

melanocephala, 117. 

picata, 118. 

graculina, Strepera, 100. 



Grakle, Black -headed, 117. 

, Blue-eared, 118. 

, Pied, 118. 

, Purple, 181. 

grallarius, Fregettornis, 108. 
Grallina cyanoleuca, 99, 116. 
gramineus, Poodytes, 96. 

milligani, Poodytes, 137. 

Grantiella picta, 103. 
GraseiTiiicke, Braungefleekle, 132. 

gemeine, 132. 

Graue, 132. 

, Kleine graue, 132. 

, Schwarzliche, 132. 

Grass-Bird, 96. 

, Tawny, 96. 

Warbler, 96. 

Graucalus hypoleucus, 94. 

nova^hollandife, 94. 

robustus, 63, 94, 116. 

Graufink, 132. 
Graumaise, 132. 
grayi, Anthus, 150. 
Grebe, Black-throated, 76. 

, Great Crested, 58, 76. 

— ■ — , Hoary-headed, 76. 

, Tippet, 76. 

Greenshank, 55, 72, 173. 

, Little, 72. 

greyi, Demiegretta, 81. 
griseiceps, Mattingleya, 93. 
griseogularis, Eopsaltria, 93, 147. 
griseus, Neonectris, 51, 67. 
Grosbeak, Blue-winged, 117, 119. 

, Rose-breasted, 179. 

Ground-Bird, Black -breasted, 95. 

, Chestnut-backed, 95. 

, Cinnamon, 95. 

, Spotted, 95. 

Ground-Dove, 78. 
Ground Thrush, 96. 

Wren, 95. 

, Western, 95. 

Grouse, Canada, 179. 
Grypaetus, 142. 
Gryphus, 142, 143. 
Gvibernatrix, 188. 
Guiraca, 187. 

ludoviciana, 179. 

gularis, Melithreptus, 102. 

, Merops, 193. 

Gull, Black-backed, 54. 

, Black-billed, 55. 

, Pacific, 71. 

, Red-billed, 54, 71. 

, Silver, 71. 

gunni, Dromaius nov;phollandia\ 

guttata, Tavistocka, 106, 116. 
guttatus, Eurostopus, 90. 
gutttu-alis, Oreoica, 100, 112. 

, Oreoscopus, 98. 

Gygisterna svunatrana, 70. 
gymnopis, Cacatxia, 10. 
Gymnorhina, 187. 

hypoleuca, 100. 

tibicen, 100. 

Gypaetus, 185. 
Gypohierax, 185. 
Gypoictinia melanosterna, 82. 

montana, 167. 

Gyps, 185. - 

haasti, Apteryx, 58. 
Habiastur, 185. 
habroptilus, Strigops, 60. 
haemastica, Vetola, 55. 
hsematogaster, Northiella, 85, 168. 

narethae, Northiella, 168. 

haematonotus, Psephotus, 85, 
Hiematopus niger. 111. 

ostralegus, 56, 74. 

unicolor, 56, 74, 111. 

ha^matopus, Trichoglossus, 167. 
hsematorrhous, Northiella, 168. 
ha?ma.totus daviesianus, Psittacus, 122. 
Haliaetus, 185. 

lecocephalus, 179. 

haliaetus, Pandion, 83, 136. 
Haliastur indus, 83. 

sphenurus, 83. 

Hallornis leucbnotus, 98. 
Haloboena cserulea, 51, 68. 
hamatodus, Trichoglossus, 167. 
Hamirostra, 183, 185. 

melanosterna, 167. 

melanosterna, 167. 

montana, 167. 

montana, 167, 184. 

hardwicki, Ditelmatias, 55, 71. 

harmonica, Colluricinela, 99. 

Harpagus, 186. 

Hapolorhynchiis albofrontatus, 63. 

Harclda, 192. 

Harpyia, 185. 

Harrier, 60, 83. 

, Spotted, 83. 

Harrisornis lathamus, 86, 167. 
Harriwhitea alberti, 90. 
Hawk, Brown, 82. 

, Bush, 60. 

, Crested, 82. 

, Quail, 60. 

Heckenspringer, 133. ...j^jgf], 
hectori, Gallirallus, 57" 



hedleyi, Geobasileus, 97. 
Heerschnepfe, 133. 
heinei, Calandrella rufescens, 1.59. 
Heliornis senegalensis, 175. 
Heloclromas, 12.5, 129. 
Helotarsus, 185. 
Hemicercus, 189. 
Hemichelidon ftxliginosa, 144. 
Hemilophus, 189. 
Hemijialma niultistriata, 181. 
Hemiphaga chathamensis, 58. 

novaeseelandise, 58, 110. 

Ilemiptilotis cockerelli, 104. 
Hemipiiffinus carneipes, 51, 67. 
Heron, Blue, 59. 

, Reef, 81. 

, Great-billed, SO. 

, Great White, 59. 

, Grev, 59. 

, Night, 59, 81. 

, White-fronted, 59, 81. 

, White-necked, 81. 

, White Reef, 81. 

Heteractitis, 113, 125, 129. 

brevipes, 72, 112. 

incanus, 55, 72, 112. 

Heteralocha acutirostris, 64. 
Heteromunia pectoralis, 106. 
Heteromyias cinereifrons, 9. 
Hetei'oprion belcheri, 51, 68. 

desolatns, 52, 68. 

Heteropygia, 129. 

acuminata, 123. 

Heteroscelis, 113. 
Heteroscelus, 113, 124, 125. 
Heteroscenes pallidus, 87. 
Hieraaetus pennatus, 83. 
Hieracoglaux connivens, 83. 
HimantojDus leucocephalus, 56, 73. 

noviPzealandia?, 56. 

himantopus, Micropalama, 123. 
Hippolais cffilebs, 131. 

icterina, 131. 

hippolais, Ficaria, 162. 

, Sylvia, 162, 163. 

Hirundapus, 138. 

caudacutus, 62, 90. 

hirundinaceum, AustrodiciTeum, 101. 
Hirundolanius caeruleus, 151. 
Hirnndo caudacuta, 138. 

clivicola, 162. 

neoxena, 91. 

riparia, 162. 

rufa, 180. 

rustica, 91. 

Hirvindolanius eserulens, 136. 
histrionica, F "'ophaps, 78. 

Histriophaps histrionica, 78. 
hochstetteri, Manteliornis, 57. 
hoUandicus, Leptolophus, 86. 
Holztaube, 133. 
Homoscolopax, 128. 
Honey-eater, Banded, 102. 

Black, 102. 

Black -chinned, 102. 

Black -headed, 102. 

Blue-faced, 105. 

Bridled, 104. 

Brown -backed, 103. 

Brown-headed, 102. 

Crescent, 105. 

Dusky, 102. 

Fasciated, 104. 

Fuscous, 103. 

Great Hooked-billed, 174. 

Green, 103. 

Grey-headed, 104. 

Helmeted, 104. 

Inconspicuous, 103. 

Least, 103. 

Little, Yellow-spotted, 103. 

Painted, 103. 

Pied, 103. 

Poe, 174. 

Red-headed, 10?. 

Red-throated, 103. 

Regent, 103. 

Rufous-breasted, 103. 

Sanguineous, 102. 

Singing, 104. 

Spiny-cheeked, 105. 

Streaked-naped, 105. 

Striped, 102. 

Strong-billed, 102. 

Tawny-fronted, 103. 

Varied, 104. 

Wattled-cheeked, 104. 

White-bearded, 105. 

White-breasted, 103. 

White-cheeked, 105. 

White-eared, 104. 

White -fronted, 103. 

White-gaped, 104. 

White-lined, 104. 

W^hite-naped, 102. 

White-plumed, 104. 

White-streaked, 104. 

Yellow, 104. 

Yellow-eared, 103. 

Yellow-faced, 103. 

Yellow-fronted, 104. 

Yellow-plumed, 104. 

Yellow-spotted, 103. 

Yellow-streaked, 104. 

Ifi m '^ 1922 ^ 





Honey-eater, Yellow-thi'oated, 104. 

, Yellow-tinted, 104. 

• , Yellow-tufted, 104. 

Hoplopterus spinosus, 151. 
hor.sfieldi, Oreocinela, 145. 

, Turdus, 144. 

Howeavis rufifrons, 93. 
hrota. Anas, 155. 

, Bernicla, 155. 

Huia, 64. 

humeralis, Chrysachoena , 78. 
humilis, Tasmanornis, 98. 
Humming-bird, Harliquin, 193. 

■ , Least, 193. 

, Red-throated, 193. 

, Stripe-cheeked, 193. 

, Topaz-throated, 193. 

Hydrochelidon plumbea, 181. 
Hydroprogne, 112. 

easpia, 54, 70. 

Hylacola caiita, 95. 

pyrrhopygia, 95. 

Hylochelidon nigricans, 62, 91. 
Hymenolaiinus, 192. 

■ malacorhynchus, 59. 

hyperboreus, Larus, 155. 
hypoleuca, Gymnorhina, 100. 
hypoleucos, Tringoides, 123. 
Hypoleucus campbelli, 53. 
— — carunculatus, 53. 

chalconotus, 53. 

— fuscescens, 69. 

perthi, 69, 111. 

varius, 53, 111. 

ll^poleucus, Actitis, 72. 

■ , Faleo, 82. 

, Graucahis, 94. 

Hypotipnidia philippensis, 57, 75. 
Hypotriorchis, 186. 

cohunbarius, 180. 

Hypurolepis javanica, 91. 

Ibis, Glossy, 60, 81. 

, Straw-necked, 81. 

, White, 82. 

, Wood, 181. 

Ibycter, 185. 
icterina, Hippolais, 131. 
icterotis, Platycercus, 85. 
Ictinia, 186. 
leracidea, 186. 

berigora, 82, 116. 

lerax, 186. 

igata, Maorigerygone, 62 
Iliornis stagnatilis, 72. 
imperialis, Gallinago, 128. 
, Paraclisea, 137, 142. 

ineanus, Heteractitis, 55, 72, 112. 
Indicator, 190. 
indistincta, Stigmatops, 103. 
indus, Haliastur, 83. 
inexpectata, Pterodroma, 51, 67. 
inexpectatus, Circus juxta, 167. 
irornata, Acanthiza, 97. 
inornatus, Gilbertornis, 93. 
inquieta, Seisura, 94. 
insularis, Fregettornis, 108. 

, Royigerygone, 109. 

interjectus, Eudyptes cristatus, 147. 
intermedia, Mesophoyx, 81. 
interpres, Arenaria, 56, 74. 
ireclalei, Acanthiza, 97. 
Iredaleornis cinereifrons, 92. 
Irediparra gallinacea, 75. 
iris, Puchri pitta, 91. 
Isabella, Stiltia, 57, 75. 
Ischnosceles, 186. 
islandicus, Larus, 156. 
ispida, Alcedo, 194. 
isura, Lophoictinia, 82. 
Ixobryehus minutus, 59, 81, 116. 

Jabiru, 81. 

Atistrahan, 121, 194. 

jamesoni, Larus, 27. 
jarcUnii, Saxicola, 136. 
javanica, Dendrocygna, 80. 

, Hypurolepis, 91. 

, Mirafra, 106. 

nigrescens, Mirafra, 137. 

soderbergi, Mirafra, 137. 

Jay, Blue, 179. 
jubata, Chenonetta, 80, 116. 
Jumper, Grey, 108. 
juxta. Circus, 167. 

gouidi. Circus, 167. 

— — inexpectatus. Circus, 167. 
juxta. Circus, 167. 

Kaka, 61. 

Long-billed, 110. 

Kakapo, 60. 

Kakatoe galerita, 86. 

Karua leucomela, 95. 

kaupi, Ophryzone, 94. 

Kea, 61. 

lieartlandi, Sacramela, 104. 

kempi, Kempiella, 93. 

Kempia fiavigaster, 91. 

Kempiella kemjji, 93. 

keraudrenii, Phonygaminus, 108. 

Kestrel, Nankeen, 60, 82. 

Ketupa, 186. 

Kingfislier, 61. 



Kingfisher Azure, 120. 

Black-oappecl, lO-t. 

Blue, 89. 

Blue-winged, 89. 

Common, 194. 

Forest, 89. 

Green-headed, 194. 

■ Little, 89. 

Mangrove, 89. 

Minute, 194. 

Red-bjSjcked, 89. 

Red-headed, 194. 

Sacred, 89. 

Ultramarine, 194. 

White-tailed, 89. 

■ Yellow-billed, 89. 

Wood, 89. 

King-Quail, 77. 
Kinglet, American, 179. 
Kite, Black-shouldered, 82, 

, Allied, 82. 

, Letter-winged, 82. 

, Square-tailed, 82. 

Kiwi, 58. 

Great Grey, 58. 

— -— Little Grey, 58. 
Knot, 55, 71. 

Great, 7 1 . 

Koel, 88. 

Long-tailed, 110. 

Kookaburra, 89, 112. 
Kurukuru taitensis, 149. 
kukunoorensis, Calandrella rufescens, 

Lacustroica whitei, 103. 
Ifetior, Melithreptus, 10. 
Lagenoplastes a.riel, 91. 
Lagopus, 191. 
Laimodon, 189. 
lialage tricolor, 95. 
lamberti, Leggeornis, 98. 
lambruschinii, Xema, 157. 
Lamprococcyx lucidus, 61, 88. 

minutillus, 88. 

plagosus, 88. 

russatus, 88. 

Lamprotes, 187. 

lanceolatus, Plectorhamphus, 102. 

I^and Rail, 76. 

lanioicles, Alisterornis, 93. 

Lanius borealis, 180. 

frontatus, 117. 

■ minor rutilus, 133. 

lapponica, Vetola, 55, 72. 
lapponicus, Plectrophanes, 179. 
Lark, Brown Song, 96. 

Lark, Bush, 106. 

, Ground, 64. 

, Meadow, 180. 

, Rufous Song, 96. 

, Shore, 181. 

Laroides major, 157. 
Lariis argentatus, 158. 

australis, 135, 152. 

can us major, 157. 

cinereus, 162. 

dominicanus, 54. 

erythrorhynohus, 135, 148. 

forcii^ata, 149. 

fi'anklini, 156. 

fucatus, 150. 

furcatus, 149. 

fuscus, 162. 

gelastes, 157. 

genei, 157. 

glaucodes, 156. 

glaucoides, 155, 156. 

glaucus, 155. 

hyperboreus, 155. 

islandicus, 156. 

jamesoni, 27. 

leucocephalus, 157. 

leucopterus, 155, 156. 

marinus, 162. 

maximus, 162. 

novsehoUandife, 148. 

pipixcan, 156. 

tereticollis, 150. 

— ■ — tenuirostris, 157. 
lateralis, Zosterops, 63, 101. 
lathami, Alectura, 77. 

, Harrisornis, 167. 

, Neosericornis, 97. 

Lathamus discolor, 84. 
lathan:ius, Hai'risornis, 86. 
lawsonii, Cohuiiba, 142. 
Lazulena macleayii, 89. 
leachi, Dacelo, 89. 
leachii, Thalassidroma, 181. 
leadbeateri, Lophochroa, 86. 

, Lophoptilotis, 104. 

, Opopsitta, 87. 

lecocephalus, Haliaetus, 179. 
Leek, Green, 86. 
Leggeornis amabilis, 98. 

elegans, 98. 

lamberti, 98. 

■ pulcherrimus, 98. 

Leipoa ocellata, 77. 
Leptolophus hollandicus, 86. 
Leptophaethon lepturus, 69. 
lepturus, Leptophaethon, 69. 
lesehenaulti, Pagoa, 74. 



lessoni, ^strelata, 51, 67. 
Lestris parasiticus, 166. 
Leucanous albns, 54, 110. 
leucocephala, Fringilla, 119. 

, Neositta, 101. 

leucocephahis, Cladorhynchus, 73. 

, Himantopiis, 56, 73. 

, Larus, 157. 

, Pandion, 136. 

Leucocirca leucophrys, 94, 112, 116. 
leucogaster, Cunciuna, 83. 

, Falco, 136. 

• , Falcunculus, 100. 

, Pontosetus, 136, 147. 

, Sula, 53, 69. 

leucomela, Karua, 95. 
Leucomeloena norfolciensis, 78. 
Leuconerfies, 190. 
leuconotus, Hallornis, 98. 
leucopareia, Chlidonias, 70. 
leucophspa, Calandrella rufescens, 159. 

, Climacteris, 101. 

, Crocethia, 72, 113. 

leucophrys, Leucocii'ca, 94, 112, 116. 

, Turdus, 120. 

Leucopolius ruficapillus, 56, 74. 
leucops, Tegellasia, 93. 
Leiicopsis, 142, 143. 
leucopsis, Aphelocephala, 100. 

, Branta, 155. 

leucoptera, Alauda, 158. 

, Clilidonias, 54, 70. 

• , Melanocorypha, 158. 

leucopterus, Larus, 155, 156. 

, Nesomalurus, 98. 

leucopygius, Diaphoropterus, 110. 
leucorynchus, Artamus, 99. 
Leucosai'cia melanoleuca, 79. 
Leucospiza novi^lioUandine, S3. 
— -. — raii, 83. 

leucosternum, Cheramoeea, 91. 
levicotis, Carterornis, 94. 

-, Nesoptilotis, 104, 116. 

, Turdus, 120. 

Leucotreron alligator, 79. 
leucura, Peneoenanthe, 93. 
levigaster, Ethelornis, 92. 
lewinii, Dorothina, 103. 
Lewinornis rufiventris, 93. 
Lichenostomus cratitius, 104. 
Licmetis, 189. 

tenuirostris, 86. 

Liiuicola, 129. 
Limnocinclus, 129. 

acuminatus, 55, 72. 

Limnocryptes, 129. 
Limnodromus, 124, 125, 129. 

Limonites, 129. 

Limosa, 124, 125, 128, 129. 

limosa, 73. 

Linaria saxatilis, 133. 
lineata, Acanthiza, 97. 

, Pealea, 50. 

lineatus, Paragraucalus, 94. 
Littlera chrysoptera, 91. 
lobata, Biziura, 80. 
Lobibyx miles, 74. 

nova?hollandi£e, 57,74. 

loculator, Tantalus, 181. 
locustella, Salicaria, 162. 

, Sylvia, 162. 

Logrunner, 95. 

, Black-headed, 95. 

longicauda, Batramia, 72. 
longicavidatus, Parus, 133. 
longimembris, Tyto, 84. 
longipennis, Falco, 82. 
longipes, Xenicus, 62. 
lonnbergi, Catharacta, 55, 71. 
Lophastur subcristatus, 82. 
Lophochroa leadbeateri, 86. 
Lophocitta, 187. 
Lophoictinia istu'a, 82. 
Lopholaimus, 191. 

— antarcticus, 79. 

Lophophaps ferruginea, 79. 
— ■ — plumifera, 78. 
Lophoptilotis leadbeateri, 104. 

melanops, 116, 104. 

lophotes, Ocyphaps, 79. 
lorealis, Proseisura, 94. 
Lorikeet, Blue-bellied, 87. 

, Little, 87. 

, Musk, 87. 

, Purple-crowned, 87. 

, Red-collared, 87. 

, Scalv-breasted, 87. 

, Varied, 87. 

Lorilet, Blue-faced, 87. 

, Red-faced, 87. 

Lorius, 189. 

pectoralis, 86. 

Lot us -Bird, 75. 
lovensis, Ashbyia, 96. 
Loxia, 188. 

americana, 181. 

cyanoptera, 119. 

lucidus, Lamprococcyx, 61, 88, 
ludoviciana, Guiraca, 179. 

, Sttu-nella, 180. 

lugubris, Motacilla, 132, 140, 143. 
lunulata, Anthocha^ra, 147. 

, Oreocincla, 96. 

lunulatus, Melithreptus. 102. 



lutea, Zosterops, 101. 
lyalli, Tvavevsia, 62. 
Lymnocryptes gallinula, 153, 154. 

minima, 154. 

Lyre-Bird, 90, 121. 
, Northern, 90. 

maccormicki, Catharacta, 55. 
maccoyii, Cyclopsitta, 10. 
Maccoyornis broadbenti, 98. 
macei, Pontoaetus, 167. 
Mac life rirhynchus flaviventer, 94. 
Machetes, 125. 

pugnax, 123. 

macklotii, Erythropitta, 90. 
macleaya^na, Caloptilotis, 104. 
macleayii, Lazulena, 89. 
Maclennania mathevvsi 96. 
Macreuse, 142, 123. 
macrocephala, Myiomoira, 62. 
Macronectes giganteus, 52, 68. 
Macronyx, 188. 

maoroptera, Pterodrorna, 51, 67. 
Macropygia, 191. 

phasianella, 78. 

Macrorhamphus, 125, 129. 
Macrorthonyx, spaldingi, 95. 
macrurus, Rossornis, 90. 
macularius, Ti'ingoides, 123. 
niacLilata, Chlaniydera. 107. 
maculatus, Orthonyx, 95. 

, Sericornis, 97. 

maculosa, Turnix, 77. 
niaculosus, Ailurcedus, 9. 
Magnamytis dorothe«:', 99. 

woodwardi, 99. 

magnifica, Craspedophora, 108. 

, Megaloprepia, 79. 

magnirostris, Bui-hinus, 71. 

, Ethelornis, 92. 

, Ortliorhamphiis, 71. 

, Sericornis, 97. 

iTiagnus, Acanthornis, 98. 
Magpie, Black-backed, 100. 
Magpie -Lark, 99. 
— — , White-backed, 100. 
major, Geocichla, 144. 

, Laroides, 157. 

, Phoenicopterus, 154. 

, Picus, 193. 

, Trochilus, 162. 

, Tardus, 144. 

, dauma, 144. 

malachurus, Stipiturus, 98, 137, 143. 
Malacorhynchus, 192. 

membranaceus, 80. 

malcorhynchus, Hymenolaimus, 59. 

makli varum, Glareola, 75. 
malherbi, Cyanorhamphus, 61. 
malimbicus, Merops, 193. 
Malimbus, 141. 
Mallee-Fowl, 77. 
Malurus cyaneus, 98, 116. 

melanotus, 98. 

splendens, 98. 

Manakin, Speckled, 119. 
Manorhina melanophrys, 105. 
Mantellornis hochstetteri, 57. 
Manucode, 108. 
Maorgigerygone igata, 62. 
Mareca, 192. 
Marianornis varius, 77. 
marina, Pelagodroma, 50, 66. 
marinus, Larus, 162. 
maritima, Arquatella, 123. 
Martin, Fairv, 91. 

, Tree-, 91. 

martinica, Porphrio, 180. 
Martinico Sultana, 180. 
mastersi, Ethelornis, 92. 
Mastersornis cyanoleucua, 94. 

rubecula, 94. 

ruficollis, 94. 

Mathewsena rubicunda, 75. 
mathewsi, Maclennania, 96. 
matook, Demiegretta, 59, 81. 
Mattingleya griseiceps, 93. 
inaxima, Pteropodocys, 94. 
maximus, Caturates, 162. 

, Larus, 162. 

Meadow-Lark, 180. 
media, Motacilla, 132. 

, Scolopax, 132. 

fera, Anas, 133. 

medius, Trochilus, 162. 
Megadyptes antipodes, 50. 
megala, Subspilura, 71. • 
Megalaima, 189. 
Megalophonus, 188. 
Megaloprepia magnifica, 97. 
Megalopterus minutus, 54, 70. 

tenuirostris, 70. 

Megalorhynchus, 189. 
Megakirus striatus, 137. 
Megapodius freycinet, 166. 

renwardt, 77, 366. 

tumulator, 16(5. 

tumulificus, 166. 

tumulorum, 166. 

tujnulus, 166. 

Megapodargus papuensis, 88. 
megarhyncha, Oaleya, 99. 
Megastrix tenebricosa, 84. 
Meiglyptes, 190. 



Melanerpes, 190. 
melanocephala, Gracula, 117. 
— — , Myzantha, 105, 116, 145. 

, Rj^ania, 98. 

melanocephalus, Pardalotinus, 102. 
Melanocorypha, 188. 

leucoptera, 158. 

sibirica, 158. 

Melanodryas cucuUata, 92, 136. 
mela-nogaster, Colcloughia, 77. 

, Corvus, 120. 

melanoleuca, Leucosarcia, 79. 
melanoleucus, Mici'ocarbo, 69. 
melanotus, Ailurcedus, 107. 

, Malurus, 98. 

melanophris, Thalassarche, 52, 68. 
melanophrys, Manorina, 105. 
melanops, Elseyornis, 74. 

, Gliciphila, 103. 

, Lophoptilotis, 104, 116. 

, Turdus, 120. 

melanopsis, Monarcha, 94. 
melanoptera, Strepera, 100. 
melanopus, Pterodronia, 67, 108. 
raelanorhamphus, Corcorax, 108. 
melanorhyncha, Briichigavia, 55. 
melanorhynchos, Platalea, 135, 152. 
Melanosterna anEethetus, 70. 
melanosterna, Gypoictinia, 82. 

, Haniirostra, 167. 

melanosterna, Haniirostra, 167. 

- — — montana, Hamirostra, 167. 
melanosternon, Buteo, 167. 
nielanosternvun, Buteo, 184. 
melanota, Whitlocka, 101. 
melanotns, Porphyrio, 76. 
melanoxantha, Tanagra, 141. 
melanura, Anthornis, 63. 

, Pachycephala, 93. 

, Whitlocka, 101. 

Melierax, 186. 

Meliornis novfehoUandiiie, 105. 

Melithreptus affinis, 102. 

atrieapillus, 102. 

gularis, 102. 

Isetior, 10. 

lunatus, 102. 

validirostris, 102. 

mellori, Conopoderas australis, 136. 
Melloria quoyi, 100. 
Melomyza obseura, 102. 
Melopsittacus, 188. 

undulatus, 84. 

membranaceus, Malaeorhynchus, 80. 
mentalis, Bulestes, 100. 
Menura novaphollandise, 90. 
— ■ edwardi, 168. 

Merganetta, 193. 

Merganser, Auckland Islands; 59, 

— — , Great, 180. 

Mergellus, 193. 

Mergulus, 193. 

Mergus, 193. 

— '— castor, 180. 

meridionalis, Nestor, 61. 

Merops albifrons, 118, 137, 145. 

apiaster, 193. 

carunculatus, 169, 170. 

coeruleocephala, 193. 

cucullatus, 118. 

gularis, 193. 

malimbicus, 193. 

ornatus, 118. 

Morula torquata orientalis, 144. 
Mesocarbo ater, 53, 69. 
Mesophoyx intermedia, 81. 
Mesoscolopax minutus, 55, 73. 
Metagraucalus tenuirostris, 95. 
metallicus, Metallopsar, 107. 
Metallopsar metallicus, 107. 
Micralcyone pusilla, 89. 
Micrartamus minor, 99. 
Micrastur, 186. 
Microcarbo brevirostris, 53. 

melanoleticus, 69. 

Micrceca assimilis, 9. 

briinneicauda, 9 1 . 

fascinans, 91. 

Microgiossum, 189. 
Micropalarna, 125, 129. 
hiniantopirs, 123. 

Microphilemon orientalis, 105. 

Micropodargus ocellatus, 88. 

plumiferus, 88. 

Micropterus, 192. 

Microptilotis fuscu,s, 103. 

gracilis, 103. 

Micropus pacificus, 62, 90. 

Microtribonyx ventralis, 76. 

migrans, Milvus, 82. 

miles, Lobibyx, 74. 

milligani, Poodytes gramineus, 137. 

Milligania robustirostris, 97. 

Milvago, 185. 

Milvus, 186. 

migrans, 82. 

Mimeta flavocincta, 107. 

sagittata, 107. 

Minah, Bell, 105. 

, Black -headed, 105. 

, Yellow-throated, 105. 

minima, Lymnocryptes, 154. 

, Scolopax, 153. 

minimus, Picus, 193. 



minimus, Sericornis, 9. 

, Trochilus, 193. 

minor, Calandrella rufescens, 159. 

, Calandritis, 159. 

, Eudyptula, 49, 66. 

, Fregata, 52, 68. 

, Micrartanius, 99. 

, Motacilla, 132. 

, Scolopax, 181. 

, Trochilns, 162. 

' rufescens, Calandrella, 159. 

rutilus, Lanius, 133. 

minuta, EiTiberiza, 160. 

, Erolia, 123. 

— — , Zaporina, 135, 162. 
minutillus, Lamprocoecyx, 88. 
minutus, Ixobrychus, 59, 81, 116. 

, Megalopterus, 54, 70. 

, Mesoscolopax, 55, 73. 

Mirafra, 188. 

javaniea, 106. 

nigrescens, 137. 

soderbergi, 137. 

Miro australis, 62. 
Mistletoe Bird, 101. 
modesta, Aidemosyne, 106. 

, Egretta alba, 154. 

, Royigerygone, 110. 

modestus, Cabalus, 57. 

, Ramsayornis, 103. 

Mohoua ochrocephala, 63. 
mollis, Pterodroma, 67. 
MoUymawk, Black-browed, 52, 68. 

, Bounty Island, 52, 68. 

, Flat-billed, 52, 68. 

, Snares Island, 52. 

, Yellow -nosed, 52, 68. 

molucca, Threskiornis, 82. 
moluccanus, Amaurornis, 76. 

, Trichoglossus, 87, 116, 167. 

Monarcha melanopsis, 94. 
mongolus, Cirrepidesmus, 74. 
Monk, 85. 
montana, Gypoictinia, 167. 

, Hamirostra, 167, 184. 

montanvis, Turdus, 132. 
Monticola saxatilis, 164. 
monticola, Petroica, 148. 
Moorhen, Black, 76. 

, Rufous-tailed, 76. 

Moos Kolbe, 133. 
Morepork, 60. 
Morganornis ruficeps, 96. 

superciliosus, 96. 

morinelkis, Cinclus, 181. 
Moris, 113. 
Morphnus, 185. 

mortierii, Tribonyx, 76. 
Morus, 113. 

moseleyi, Eudyptes cristatus, 147. 
Motacilla alba yarrellia, 132. 

j^arrellii, 140. 

altera, 132. 

ccelebs, 131, 133. 

cj'anura, 160. 

dumetorum, 133. 

fimbriata, 137, 143. 

fu.gca, 132. 

lugubris, 132, 140, 143. 

media, 132. 

minor, 132. 

nigricans, 132. 

palustris, 163. 

tractrac, 144. 

variegata, 132. 

varigata, 132. 

staperola, 132. . 

mould, Ethelornis, 92. 
muelleri, Rallus, 57. 
multicolor, Petroica, 91, 116. 

, Trochilus, 193. 

multistriata, Heinipalma, 181. 
muralis, Rtificilla, 163. 
Muscicapa fuliginosa, 144. 

plumbea, 140. 

rutila, 132. 

— — si birica fuliginosa, 144. 
Muscitrea simplex, 93. 
Mutton Bird, 51. 
Mycteria australis, 194. 
Myiomoira macrocephala, 62. 

toitoi, 62. 

Myola pacifica, 8 1 . 
Myristicivora bicolor, 79. 
mystacalis, Eurostopus, 90. 
Myzantha, 137. 

flavigula, 105. 

garrula, 169. 

• melanocephala, 105, 116, 145. 

Myzomela erythrocephala, 102. 
sanguineolenta, 102, 116. 

nssvius, Caturatis, 162. 

nsevosa, Stictonetta, 80. 

nana, Acanthiza, 97. 

naretha>, Northiellahaniiatogaster, 168. 

, Psephotus, 168. 

Nasiterna, 189. 
Native-Companion, 75. 

Hen, 76. 

Nauclerus, 186. 
nebui, Columba, 149. 
nebularia, Tringa, 123. 
nebularius, Glottis, 55, 72. 



neglecta, Pterodroma, 51, 109. 
Neochmia albiventer, 107. 

phaeton, 107. 

picumna, 101. 

Neonanodes chrysogaster, 84. 

chrysostomns, 84. 

elegans, 84. 

petrophilus, 84. 

Neonectris griseus, 51, 67. 

tenuirostris, 51, (37. 

Neophema pulchella, 84, 116. 

splendida, 84. 

Neophron, 185. 
Neopoephila personata, 107. 
Neopsephotus bourkii, 85. 
Neosericornis lathanii, 97. 
Neositta chrysoptera, 101. 

leucocephala, 101. 

pileata, 101. 

Neosittella striata^, 101. 
Neospilura, 128. 
Neostrepera versicolor, 100. 
neoxena, Hirundo, 91. 
nereis, Garrodia, 50. 

, Stermila, 54, 70. 

Xesierax novae hollandia^ 

pottsi, 60. 

Nesoceryx bicincttis, 74. 
Nesolimnas dieffenbachii, 
Nesomalurns leucopterus, 98. 
Nesoniiro dannefordi, 62. 

traversi, 62. 

Nesonetta, 193. 

aucklandica, 59. 

Nesopardalotus quadragintus, 102. 
Nesoptilotis fiavicollis, 104. 

leucotis, 104, 116. 

Neaoscolopax, 124, 128, 129. 
Nesozosterops albogularis, 110. 

strenua, 109. 

Nezozosterops tenuirostris, 110. 
Nestor, 189.. 

meridionalis, 61. 

notabiHs, 61. 

produetns, 110. 

Nettai^us, 192. 
jSTeuntodter, 133. 
newtoniana, Prionodura, 107. 
niger, Haematopus, 111. 
— , Psittacus, 167, 174. 

, Pui-nellornis, 105. 

jSTightjar, Large-tailed, 90. 

, Owlet, 89, 121. 

, Spotted, 90. 

, White-throated, 90. 

nigra, Cissomela, 102. 
, Querquedula, 162. 



nigra, Rhynchops, 181. 

, Scolopax, 112. 

nigrescens, Mirafra javanica, 137. 
nigricans, Hylochelidon, 62, 91. 
— -, Motaeilla, 132. 
nigrogularis, Cracticus, 100. 

, PsojDhodes, 96. 

nilotica, Gelochelidon, 70. 
Noddy, 54, 70. 

Lesser, 70. 

Little Grey, 54, 109, 110. 

White-capped, 54, 70. 

norfolciensis, Leucomelojna, 78. 
Northiella htematogaster, 85, 168. 

nareth*, 168. 

haimatorrhous, 168. 

pallescens, 168. 

Northipsitta alexandrte, 86. 
nota,bilis, Nestor, 61. 
notatus, Elanus, 82, 
Notiomystis cincta, 63. 
Notofalco siibniger, 82. 
Notophoyx novsehollandioe, 59, 81. 
novfl?guine£e, Dacelo, 89, 112. 
novwhollandise, Australasia, 167. 

, Anhinga, 53, 69. 

, Bruchigavia, 54, 71, 135. 

. Cereopsis, 79. 

, Dromiceius, 66, 117. 

, Graucalus, 94. 

, Larus, 148. 

, Leucospiza, 83. 

, Lobibyx, 57, 74. 

, Mehornis, 105. 

, Menura, 90. 

, Nesierax, 60. 

, Notophoyx, 59, 81. 

, Recurvirostra, 56, 73. 

, Scvthrops, 88. 

, Tyto, 84. 

edwardi, Menura, 168. 

gunni, Dromaivis, 175. 

novoeseelandia", Anthiis, 150. 

, Austranthus, 64. 

, Finschia, 63. 

, Fuligula, 59. 

, Hemiphaga, 58, 110. 

, Prosthemadera, 63. 

, Spiloglaux, 60, 83. 

, Thinornis, 56. 

novtBzealandiae, Coturnix, 58. 

, Cyanorhamphus, 109, 110. 

— • — , Himantopus, 56. 

var. j3., Alaiida, 150. 

nov;T?zeIandi;Te, Cyanorhamphus, 60. 
nuchalis. Rogersornis, 107. 
nucifraga, Caryocatactes, 162, 



Numeniina;, 125, 128. 
Nmnenius, 124, 125, 129. 

cyanopus, 56, 73. 

Nussheher, 133. 

Nuthatch, Red-bellied, 180. 

Nyctale, 186. 

Nyctea, 186. 

nyctea, Strix, 194. 

Nj^cticoi'ax caledonicus, 59, 81. 

Nymphicus, 188. 

Nyroca, 192. 

-— -- australis, 59, 80. 

nyroca, 153. 

rufa, 136, 153. 

nyroca, Anas, 136. 

obscura. Anas, 153. 

, Melomyza, 102. 

obscurus, Pluviorhynchvis, 56. 
oceiden talis, Geopsittaous, 84. 
occipitalis, Chlamydodera, 9. 
oceanicus, Oceanites, 50, 66. 
Oceanites oceanicus, 50, 66. 
ocellata, Leipoa, 77. 
ocellatus, Micropodargus, 88. 
ochrocephala, Mohoua, 63. 
ochropus, Tringa, 123. 
Octocris alpestris, 181. 
Octogometra, "1 1 3. 
Octygometra, 113. 
oculatus, Zonfeginthus, 106. 
Ocyphaps lophotos, 79. 
CEna, 191. 
QSnanthe cinerea, 144. 

deserti, 159. 

albifrons, 159. 

■ atrogularis, 160. 

deserti, 159. 

Oidemia, 192. 
olivacea, Gerygone, 92. 
olivaceus, Anthophagus, 174. 

, Psophodes, 95. 

, Timixos, 93. 

oliveri, Pterodroma, 51. 
olivii, Austroturnix, 77. 
Olor, 113. 

Onychoprion fuscatus, 54, 70. 
Ophryzone kaupi, 94. 
Opopsitta coxeni, 87. 

leadbeateri, 87. 

optatus, Cuculus, (il, 87. 
Oreocincla, 144. 

horsfieldi, 145. 

lunulata, 96. 

Oreoica gutturalis, 100, 112. 
Orcoscopus guttiu'.ilis, 98. 
orientalis, Chlamydodera, 9. 

orientalis, Eudynamis, 88. 

, EurystGinus, 61, 89, 117. 

— — , Merula torquata, 144. 

, Microphilemon, 105. 

■, Turdus, 144. 

, torquatus, 144. 

Origmella solitaria, 97. 
Oriole, 107. / 

Golden, 180. 

Yellow, 107. 

Oriolus galbula, 180. 

regens, 137, 142. 

ornata, Sacramela, 104. 
ornatus, Cosmaei'ops, 89, 117. 

, Merops, 118. 

Orthonyx maculatus, 95. 
Orthorhamphus magnirostris, 71. 
Ortygometra, 113. 
Ortyx, Virginian, 179. 
j Ortyx virginiana, 179. 
osculans, Owenavis, 88. 
Osprey, 83. 

ostralegus, Hajmatopiis, 56, 74. 
Otocoris, 188. 
Otogyijs, 185. 

auricularis, 180. 

Otus, 186. 

vulgaris, 180. 

Owenavis osculans, 88. 
oweni, Apteryx, 58. 
Owl, Barn, 84, 180. 

Boobook, 83. 

Grass, 84. 

Hawk-, 180. 

Laughing, 60. 

Long-eared, 180. 

Masked, 84. 

Powerful 84. 

Rufous, 83. 

Snowy, 194. 

Sooty, 84, 

Virginian Horned, 180. 

Winking, 83. 
Oxylophus, 190. 
Oystercatcher, 56, 74. 

, Black, 56, 74, HI, 112. 

, Pied, 74. 

Pachycephala melanura, 93. 

pectoralis, 93. 

robusta, 93. 

xanthoprocta, 1 10. 

Pachyptila, 166. 

forsteri, 166. 

vittata, 52, 68, 116. 

pachyrliynchus, Eudyptes, 50, 66, 146. 
pacifica, Certhia, 174. 



pacifica, Globicera, 79. 
— — , Myola, 81. 

, Thyellodroma, 51, 67. 

pacificus, Evirystomus, 136, 151. 

, Gabianus, 71. 

, Micropus, 62, 90. 

Pagoa leschenaulti, 74. 
Palsenrnis, 188. 
Pallenia caiidacuta, 138. 
pallescens, Northiella, 168. 
pallida, Acanthiza, 137. 
pallidus, Heteroscenes, 87. 
palpebrata, Phoebeti'ia, 52. 
palpebrosa. Pseud ogerygone, 92. 
palustris, Acrocephalus, 163. 
—-- , Embriza, 131, 133. 

. Fako, 133. 

, Motacilla, 163. 

. Sylvia, 163. 

Pandion, 185. 

-: halisetos var. australis, 136. 

haiiaetiis, 83, 136. 

leucocephalu.s, 136. 

papiia, Pygoscelis, 50. 

papuensis, Megapodavgus, 88. 

Paradisea imperialis,'137, 142. 

paradisea, Ptiloi-is. 108. 

, Vidua, 180. 

paradoxus, Corvus, 169, 170. 

, Creadion, 169. 

, Dyottornis, 105. 

paradoxus, Creadiou, 169. 

westernensis, Creadion, 169. 

Paragraucalus lineattis, 94. 

Paraptilotis chrysops, 103. 

fusca, 103. 

Paraseolopax, 128. 

parasiticus, Lestris, 166. 

, Stercorarius, 55, 71. 

Parasula dactjdatra, 53, 69. 

Pardalote, Black-headed, 102. 

, Forty-spotted, 102. 

, Red-browed, 102. 

, Spotted, 102. 

, Yellow-tipped, 102. 

Pardalotinus nielanocephalus, 102. 

rubricatus, 102. 

striatus, 102. 

Pardalotus punctatus, 102, 116. 

Parephthianura tricolor, 96. 

parkinsoni; Procellaria, 51, (57. 

Parrakeet. Antipodes Island, 61. 

, Green, 109, 110. 

, Orange-fronted, 61. 

, Red-fronted, 60. 

, Tureosine, 117. 

, Yellow-fronted, 61. 

Parrot, Beautiful, 85. 

Black-hooded, 85. 

Blue-bellied, 121. 

Blue-cheeked, 85. 

Blue-vented, 85. 

Blue -winged, 84. 

Carolina, 179. 

Crimson, 85. 

Crimson-fronted , 117. 

Golden-shouldered, 85. 
'Grass, 84. 

Green, 85. 

King, 85. 

Mallee, 85. 

Orange-bellied, 84. 

Pink-cheeked, 86. 

Red-backed, 85. 

Red-capped, 85. 

Red-cheeked, 86. 

Red-shouldered Grass, 84. 

Red-sided, 86. 

Red-winged, 86. 

Rock, 84. 

Scarlet-chested Grass, 84. 

Smutty, 85. 

Spinifex, 84. 

Swift, 84. 

Varied, 85. 

Yellow, 85. 

Yellow -cheeked, 85. 
Parus atricapilla, 132. 

atricapillus, 180. 

longicaudatus, 133. 

sylvestris ater, 133. 

parvirostris, Chalcites, 148. 

parvula, Conigravea, 99. 

parvus, Ralkis, 135. 

Passerella, 187. 

patagonica, Aptenodytes, 50, 66. 

Pavoncella, 129. 

Pealea lineata, 50. 

Pebbler, Rock, 86. 

pectoralis, Aphelocepliala, 100. 

, Cissomela, 102. 

, Coturnix, 77. 

, Heteromunia, 106. 

, Lorius, 86. 

, Pachycephala, 93. 

, Rallus, 75. 

, Xerophila, 9. 

Pedionomus torcjuatus, 78. 
Pelagodronna marina, 50, G6. 

Pelocanoides urinatrix, 
Pelican, Australian, 53, 
Pehdna, 125, 126, 129. 
pella, Trochilus, 193. 
Peltohyas australis, 75. 





Peneoenanthe leucura, 93. 
Penguin, Big-crested, 50, 66. 

, Fairy, 66. 

, Little Blue, 49. 

, King, 50, 66. 

, Macaroni, 50, 66, 111. ' 

, Silver, 49. 

, Tufted, 50, 66. 

, Yellow-crested, 111. 

, Yellow-crowned, 50, 

, Victoria, 50. 

Penguins, Thick-billed, 49. 

. Thin-billed, 50. 

penicillata, Ptilotula, 104. 
pennatus, Hieraaetus, 83. 
pennsylvanicxis, Buteo, 179. 
peregrinus, Rhynchodon, 82. 
Perisoreus, 187. 
Pernis, 186. 

peroni, Peronista, 66, 166. 
Peronista dienienianus, 175, 166. 

peroni, 66, 166. 

persica, Calandrella rufescens, 159. 
personata, Neopoephila, 107. 
personatus, Campbellornis, 99. 
perthi, Hypoleucus, 69, 111. 
petersi, Podica, 175. 
Petrel, Antarctic, 51. 

, Black, 51, 67. 

, Blue, 51, 68, 165. 

, Brown, 51, 67, 111. 

, Brown-headed, 67, 108. 

, Diving, 52, 68. 

, Giant, 52, 68. 

, Grey-faced, 51, 67. 

, Kennadec, 51, 109. 

, Mottled, 51, 67. 

, Silver-Grey, 51, 67. 

, Small-billed, 51. 

, Soft-plumaged, 67. 

, Spotted, 51, 67. 

, Sunday Island, 51. 

, White-headed, 51, 67. 

, White -winged, 51, 67. 

, White-chinned, 51. 

Petrella capensis, 51, 67. 
Petroica monticola, 148. 

-multicolor, 91, 116. 

Petrophassa albipennis, 78. 

rufipennis, 78. 

petrophilus, Neonanodes, 84. 
Pezoporus, 188. 

wallicus, 84. 

Phfpna, 142. 
Phaiopus, 124, 129. 
phaeton, Neochmia, 107. 
Phalacrocorax carbo, 53, 69. 

Phalarope, Grey, 56. 
Phalaropus fulicarius, 56. 
PhajDS chalcoptera, 78. 
phasianella, Macropygia, 78. 
phasianinus, Polophilus, 88. 
Phegornis, 129. 
Philanthus, 137, 145. 
Philemon argenticeps, 105. 

yorki, 105. 

philippensis, Hypotfcnidea, 57, 75. 

, Tomirdus, 75. 

Phillanthe creadion, 168, 169. 

dilophus, 169. 

• anthocsera, 169. 

phillipsi, Anthus, 151. 
Philohela, 125, 128, 129. 
Philomachus, 125, 129. 
Phoebetria fusca, 52, 68. 

palpebrata, 52. 

Phoeiiicophaus, 190. . 
Phoenicopterus, 192. 

major, 154. 

ruber, 181. 

antiquorum, 154. 

phosnicurus, Sylvia, 163. 
Phoeopus phoeopus, 55, 73. 
Phonygama, 187. 
Phonygammus keraudrenii, 108. 
phrygia, Zanthomiza, 103. 
Phylidonyris pyrrhoptera, 105. 
Pica giandaria minor, 133. 

sanblasiana, 149. 

picata, Gracula, 118. 
Picoides, 189. 
picta, Emblema, 106. 
— - — , Grantiella, 103. 
picuinna, Neoclima, 101. 
Picumnus, 189. 
Picus, 189. 

auralentus, 140. 

braziliensis, 193. 

coronatus, 140. 

^ erythrocephalus, 181. 

major, 193. 

minimus, 193. 

pileatus, 193. 

principalis, 193. 

Pica pendeloques, 170. 
Piezorhynchus alecto, 94. 
Pigeon, 58, 110. 
— ~, Bandtailed, 181. 

, Black-banded Fruit, 79. 

— • — , Chatham Islands, 58. 

, Chestnut-quilled, 78. 

, Crested, 79. 

, Flock, 78. 

, Grey-headed, 79. 



Pigeon, Naked-eyecl, Partridge, 78. 

, Nutmeg, 79. 

, Partridge, 78. 

, Pheasant, 78. 

, Plumed, 78. 

, Purple-breasted Fruit, 79. 

, Pvirple-crowned .Fruit, 79. 

, Red-cered, 79. 

, Red-plumed, 79. 

, Top-knot, 79. 

, White-headed, 78. 

, White-quilled Rock, 78. 

, White-throated, 109. 

Pileata, 183, 184. 
pileata, Neositta, 101. 
pileatus, Pious, 193. 
Pilot Bird, 95. 
pinetorum, Ficedula, 162. 
Pipils, 187. 
Pipit, 105. 

pipixcan, Larus, 156. 
Piraya, 190. 
Pisobia, 125, 129. 

• ruficollis, 55, 72. 

subminuta, 72. 

Piscatrix sula, 69. 
Pitta, Blue-breasted, 90. 

, Noisy, 90. 

, Rainbow, 91. 

Pitylus, 187. 
placens, Stei-nvila, 10. 
placida, Geopelia, 78. 
plagosus, Lamprococcyx, 88. 
Plain-Wanderer, 78. 
Planesticixs fuliginosus, 110. 

xanthopus, 109. 

Platalea, 191. 

ajaya, 179. 

melanorhynchos, 135, 152. 

Platibis flavipes, 82. 
Platycercxis, 188. 

adscitus, 85. 

caledonicus, 85. 

elegans, 85, 116. 

eximius, 85, 116. 

flaveolus, 85. 

icterotis, 85. 

venustus, 85. 

Platyrhamphus, 129. 
Platyrhynchus falcinellus, 71. 
Plectorhamphus lanceolatus, 102. 
Plectrophanes, 188. 

lapponicus, 179. 

Plectropterus, 192. 
Plegadis falcinellus, 60, 81. 
Plotus anehinga, 180. 
Plover, Black -breasted, 74. 

Plover, Grey, 74. 

, Lesser Golden, 56, 74. 

, Lesser Masked, 74. 

, Shore, 56. 

, Spur-winged, 51, 74. 

, Wrjr-billed, 56. 

phmibea, Hydrochelidon, 181. 

, Muscicapa, 140. 

, Porzanoidea, 57, 76. 

plumifera, Lophophaps, 78. 
plumiferus, Micropodargus, 88. 
Ijlumula, Sacramela, 104. 
Pluvialis, 112. 

cloininicvis, 56, 74. 

Pluviorhynchus obscurus, 56. 
Podargus strigoides, 88. 
Podica africanus, 175. 
Podiceps, 193. 

cristatus, 58, 76. 

Podilymbus, 193. 
Poecilodryas cerviniventris, 92. 

albifacies, 9. 

superciliosa, 92. 

pa?cilonotus, Buteo, 147. 
Poephila acuticauda, 106. 

gouldia^, 106. 

poiciloptilus, Botaurus, 59, 81. 
polatzeki, Calandrella rufescens, 159. 
Poliocephakis rufopectus, 58. 
poliocephakis, Tachybaptus, 76. 
Poliolimnas cinereus, 76. 
Poliornis, 186. 
Polophilus phasianinus, 88. 
Polyboroides, 186. 
Polyborus, 185. 
Polytelis anthopeplus, 86. 

swainsonii, 86. 

pomarinus, Coprotheres, 71. 
Poinatostomiis temporalis, 96. 
Pontoaetus, 185. 

leucogaster, 136, 147. 

macei, 167. 

Poodytes gramineus, 96. 

milligani, 137. 

Porphyrio albus, 109. 

belkis, 76. 

martinica, 180. 

melanotus, 76. 

porphyrocephala, Glossopsitta, 87. 
Porzana fluminea, 76. 
Porzanoidea plumbea, 57, 76. 
pottsi, Nesierax, 60. 
pratensis, Anthus, 169. 
Pratincole, Australian, 57, 75. 

■, Oriental, 75. 

principalis, Picus, 193. 
Priocella antarctica, 51, 67. 


Priofinus sequinoctialis, 111. 

arctica, 111. 

cinerea, 111. 

Prion, 165, 166. 

Broad-billed, 52, 68. 

Dove, 52, 68. 

Fairv, 52, 68. 

Thin- billed, 51, 68. 

Prioniturus, 188. 
Prionodura newtoniana, 107. 
prionurus, Cnculvis, 138, 141. 
Probosciger aterrimvis, 87. 
Procellaria, 111. 

sequinoctialis, 51. 

coerulea, 165. 

parkinsoni, 51, 67. 

vittata, 166. 

Procelsterna albivitta, 149. 

cerulea, 54, 109, 110. 

albivitta, 135. 

productus, Nestor, 110. 
Promergus australis, 59. 
Prosboscigei^ 142. 
Proseisura lorealis, 94. 
Prosobonia, 129. 

Prosthemadera novaaseelandia>, 63. 
P.sephotellus chrysopterygius, 85^ 

dissimilis, 85. 

— - pulcherrimns, 85. 
Psephotus hfeniatonotus, 85. 

narethse, 168. 

-- - varius, 85. 
Pseudaetn.s bonelli, 167. 
Pseudastur, 147. 
Pseudogerygone palpebrosa, 92. 
Pseudoglottis, 129. 
Pseudoprion turtur, 52, 68. 
Psevidoscolopax, 124. 
Pseudototaniis, 129. 
Psilopogon, 189. 
Psilorliinus, 187. 
Psittacula, 189. 
Psittacus, 189. 

aterrimus, 142. 

bathur.stii, 142. 

cookii, 167, 174. 

discolor, 168. 

fimbriatus, 122. 

haematotus daviesianus, 122. 

niger, 167, 174. 

pulchellus, 117. 

Psitteuteles versicolor, 87. 
Psophodes nigrogularis, 96. 
— > — olivaceus, 95. 
Pterocles, 191. 
Pterocryanea, 192. 
Pterodroma, 112. 

Pterodronia externa, 51. 

inexjDectata, 51, 67. 

■ — macroptera, 51, 67. 
- -- melanopus, 67, 108. 
- mollis, 67. 

neglecta, 51, 109. 

oliveri, 51. 
pLeioglosstis, 188 
Pteropodocys maxima, 94, 
Pteropus, 172. 

africanus, 174, 175. 

surinamensis, 174. 

Ptilonopus, 190. 

regina, 79. 

superba, 79. 

Ptilonorhynchus violaceus, 107. 
Ptiloris paradisea, 108. 
Ptilotina analoga, 103. 
Ptilotis flavostriata, 10. 
— — frenata, 10. 
Ptilotula flavescens, 104. 

penicillata, 104. 

Ptistes erythropterus, 168. 
Puffinus assimilis, 50, 67. 
pugnax. Machetes, 123. 
pulchella, Neophema, 84, 116. 
pulchellus, Chenisciis, 79. 

, Psittacus, 117. 

pulcherrimus, Leggeornis, 98. 

, Psephotellus, 85. 

Pulcliripitta iris, 91. 
pmnila, Fringilla, 132. 
punctata, Bowdleria, 63. 
punctatum, Cinclosoma, 95. 
punctatus, Pardalotus, 102, 116. 

, Stictocarbo, 53. 

punicens, Turdus, 26. 
Purnella albifrons, 103. 
Purnellornis niger, 105. 
Purpureicephalus spurius, 85. 
piu'pureus, Quiscalus, 181. 
pusilla, Acanthiza, 97. 

, Alcedo, 194. 

, Certhia, 132. 

, Emberiza, 160. 

— — , Qlo.ssopsitta, 87. 

, Micralcyone, 89. 

, Zapornia, 57, 76. 

pusillus, Ereunetes, 123. 
Pycnoptilus floccosus, 95. 
pygmieus, Eurynorhynclms, 123. 
Pygoscelis papua, 50. 
Pyranga riibra, 181. 
Pyrenestes, 187. 
Pyrrhola^mus brunneus, 97. 
pyrrhophanus, Cacomantis, 87. 
pyrrlioptera, Pliylidonyris, 105. 



pyrrhopj'^gia, Hylaeola, 95. 
pyrrhopygius, Cyanaloj^on, 89. 
pyrrhothorax, Alphatnrnia, 77. 
Pyrrhula, 188. 

cocinea, 162. 

europsea, 162. 

Pyrvhulauda, 188. 
pyrrhuloides, Schoeniclus, 131. 

quadragiiitus, Nesopardalotus, 102. 
Quail, 58. 

, Allied, 77. 

■ , Black -backed, 77. 

, Black-bj'easted, 77. 

, Brown, 77. 

, Chestnut-backed, 77. 

, Hawk, 60. 

, King, 77. 

, Little, 77. 

, Painted, 77. 

, Red-chested, 77. 

, Stubble, 77. 

Quarrion, 86. 
Querquedula, 192. 

fusca, 162. ■ 

nigra, 162. 

querquedula, 80. 

Quiscalus purpureus, 181. 
quoyi, Melloria, 100. 
Quoyornis georgianus, 93. 

radiatus, Erythrotri orchis, 83. 

Radjah radjah, 80. 

Rahcinta clamosa, 91. 

raii, Leucospiza, 83. 

Rail, Auckland Islands, 57. 

, Buff-banded, 57, 75. 

, Chatham Islands, 57. 

, Chestnut -bellied, 76. 

, Land, 76. 

, Little Chatham Islands, 57. 

. Marsh, 57. 

, Slate-breasted, 75. 

, Swamp, 57. 

Rallina, 151, 152. 

■ fasciata, 152. 

Rallus miielleri, 57. 

parvus, 135. 

pectoralis, 75. 

Ramphopis, 187. 
Ramsayornis fasciatus, 103. 

modestus, 103. 

Raperia godmanae , 109. 

Raven, 108. 

Recurvirostra americana, 181. 

novaehollandite, 56, 73. 

Red-throat, 97. 

Reef -Heron, White, 81. 
Reed-Warbler, 96. 
regens, Oriolus, 137, 142. 
Regent Bird, 107. 
regia, Spatherodia, 60, 82. 
regina, Ptilinopus, 79. 
reguloides, Geobasileus, 97. 
Regulus americanus, 179. 

cristaurea, 162. 

vulgaris, 162. 

Reinholdia reinholdi, 50, 67. 
reinwardt, Megapodius, 77, 166. 
Rhabdoglaux rufa, 83. 
Rhamphastos, 188. 
Rhinortha, 190. 
Rhipidura drvas, 9. 

flabeUifera, 63, 93. 

fuliginosa, 63. 

Rhvacophilus, 125, 129. 

"- glareola, 72, 123. 

Rhynchsea, 125. 
Rhynchoceros, 142, 143. 
Rhynchodon peregrinus, 82. 
Rhynchoplatvis, 142, 143. 

clypeata, 135. 

Rhynchops nigi'a, 181. 
rhynchotis, Spatula, 59, 80. 
richmondi, Wilsonavis, 92. 
Rifle-Bird, 108. 

Cape York, 108. 

Rifleman, 62. 
Riparia europa:'a, 162. 
riparia, Hirimdo, 162. 
Robin, 62. 

, Ashy-fronted Fly, 92. 

, Black, 62. 

, Buff-sided, 92. 

, Dusky, 92. 

, Flame -breasted, 91. 

-- — , Grev-breasted Shrike, 93. 

, Hooded, 92. 

— , Large-headed, 93. 

, Mangrove, 93. 

, Pink-breasted, 91. 

, Red-capped, 91. 

, Rose-breasted, 92. 

, Scrub, 95. 

, Snares Island, Black, 62. 

, White -breasted Shrike, 93. 

, White-browed, 92. 

, White -throated Fly, 93. 

, Yellow-breasted, 93. 

, Yellow-breasted Shrike, 93. 

robusta, Pachycephala, 93. 
robustirostris, Milligania, 97. 
robustus, Graucalus, 63, 94, 116. 
Rock -Hopper, .50. 



Rock -Warbler 

rodinogaster, Erythrodryas, 91. 
rogersi, Butorides, 8. 
Rogersornis nuchalis, 107. 
Rohrammerling, 133. 
Rohrhinne, Bunte, 134. 
Rohrweihe, 133. 
Roller, 61, 89. 
rosea, Belchera, 92. 

, Carpodacus, 164. 

ro,seicapillus, Eolophus, 86. 
Rosella, 8.5. 

Adelaide, 85. 

Rosina coronata, 98. 
Rossornis macrurus, 90. 
Rostfarbige Wasserhuhn, 134. 
Rostratula, 124, 129. 

aus trails, 71. 

Rostratulinse, 124, 129. 
Rostrharnus, 186. 
royanus, Fregettornis, 108. 
Royigerygone insularis, 109. 

modesta, 110. 

rubeciila, Mastersornis, 94. 
ruber, Phoenicopterus, 181. 

antiquorvim, Phoenicopterus, 154. 

rubicunda, Mathewsena, 75. 
rubida, Erismatura, 181. 
rubiginosa, Fulica, 134. 
rubra, Pyranga, 181. 
rubricatus, Cacomantis, 87. 
— — , Pardalotinus, 102. 
rubricauda, Scaeophaethon, 54, 70. 
rubricera, Globicera, 79. 
rubritorquis, Trichoglossus, 87. 
rufa. Anas, 136, 153. 

, Hirundo, 180. 

, Nyroca, 136, 153. 

, Rhabdogianx, 83. 

, Whitlocka, 101. 

rufescens, Alauda, 159. 

, Atrichornis, 91. 

, Bowdleria, 63. 

, Calandrella minor, 159. 

, rufescens, 159. 

bsetica, Calandrella, 159. 

cheleensis, Calandrella, 159. 

heinei, Calandrella, 159. 

kukurooi'ensis, Calandrella, 159. 

— leucophsea, Calandrella, 159. 

minor, Calandrella, 159. 

persica, Calandrella, 159. 

polatzeki, Calandrella, 159. 

rufescens, Calandrella, 159. 

seebohmi, Calandrella, 159. 

— — , Cracticus, 9. 
Ruff, 123. 

ruficapillus, Leucopolius, 56, 74. 
ruficauda, Bathilda, 106. 
ruficeps, Morganornis, 96. 
Ruficilla muralis, 163. 
ruficollis, Mastersornis, 94. 

, Pisobia, 55, 72. 

, Tachybaptus, 76. 

, Turdus, 160. 

rufifrons, Howeavis, 93. 
rufipennis, Petrophassa, 78. 
rufiventris, CoUuricincla, 99. 

, Lewinornis, 93. 

rufogularis, Acanthagenys, 105. 

, Conopophaga, 103. 

•, Gilbertornis, 93. 

rufopectus, Poliocephalus, 58. 
russatus, Lamprococcyx, 88. 
rustica, Emberiza, 160. 

■ •, Hirundo, 91. 

rustieola, Scolopax, 173. 
Rusticolinse, 125. 
ruticilla, Setophaga, 179. 
rutila, Anas, 153. 

, Muscicapa, 132. 

rutilus, Lanius ininor, 133. 
Ryania melanocephala, 98. 

Sacramela keartlandi, 104. 

ornata, 104. 

plumula, 104. 

Saddle Back, 64. 
sagittata, Chthonicola, 97. 

•, Mimeta, 107. 

Salicaria arundinacea, 162. 

locustella, 162. 

salicum, Ficedula, 162. 
Saltator, 187. 

salvadorii, Sphecotheres, 95. 
Samuela alisteri, 95. 

cinnamomea, 95. 

sanblasiana, Pica, 149. 
sancta, Sauropatis, 89. 
sanctus, Sauropatis, 61. 
Sanderling, 72. 
Sandpiper, Broad-billed, 71. 

, Common, 72. 

, Curlew, 55. 

, Grey, 55, 72. 

, Grey-rmnped, 72. 

, Hudsonian, 181. 

, Long-tailed, 72. 

, Terek, 72. 

— , Wood, 72. 

sanguineolenta, Myzomela, 102 11(1. 
sanguinicollis, Corvus, 140. 
sanguineus, Ducorpsius, 86. 
Sarcoramphus, 185. 



Sarkidiornis, 192. 
Sasia, 189. 

saturata, Scolopax, 128. 
Sauropatis chloris, 89. 

sancta, 89. 

sanctus, 61. 

Saurothera, 190. 
saxatilis, Linaria, 133. 

, Monticola, 164. 

Saxicola albifions, 160. 

jardinii, 136. 

Scaeophaethon rubricauda, 54, 70. 
scanrlens, Cactornis, 149. 
scapularis, Alisterus, 85, 116, 139. 
Scaup, 59. 

Sceloglaux albifacies, 60. 
Scenopoeetes dentirostris, 107. 
Scenopoeus dentirostris, 9. 
schlegii, Eudyptes, 50, 66, 111. 
Schceniclus pyrrhuloides, 131. 

schceniclus, 131. 

Schwanzmaise, 133. 

sclateri, Eudyptes, 50. 

Scolopacid*, 128, 129. 

Scolopacinfe, 124, 125, 128, 129. 

Scolopax, 125, 128, 129. 

— coelestis, 130, 131, 132, 133. 

media, 132. 

minima, 153. 

minor, 181. 

nigra, 112. 

rusticola, 173. 

saturata, 128. 

solitai'ia, 128. 

undulata, 129. 

seripta, Geophaps, 78. 
scriptvis, Elanvis, 82. 
Scrub Bird, Noisy, 91. 

— , Rufous, 91. 

Scrub Fowl, 77. 
Scrub Robin, 95. 

, Northern, 95. 

Scrub Tit, 98. 
Scrub Wren, 97. 

, Brown, 98. 

■ , Collared, 98. 

, Large-billed, 97. 

■ , Northern, 97. 

, Spotted, 97. 

, Yellow -throated, 97. 

Scythrops, 190. 

novaehollandiap, 88. 

Sea Eagle, White-headed, 179. 
seebohmi, Calandrella rufeseens, 159. 
Seisura inquieta, 94. 
semipalmata, Anseranas, 79, 166. 
senegalensis, Heliornis, 175. 

Sericornis frontalis, 97. 
— — maculatus, 97. 

magnirostris, 97. 

minimus, 9. 

tyrannulus, 97. 

. chrysocephakis, 107, 137, 142. 

Serpentarius, 186. 
serrator, Sulita, 54, 69. 
serresianus, Eudj^ptes, 5, 66, 111, 137, 

, cristatus 147. 

Setopiiaga ruticilla., 179. 
setosa, Setosura, 94. 
Setosura setosa, 94. 
Shag, Black, 53, 69, 

, Bronze, 53. 

, Campbell Island, 53. 

, Chatham Islands, 53. 

, Little Black, 53, 69. 

, Pied, 53. 

, Rouah-faced, 53. 

, Spotted, 53. 

, White-throated, 53. 

Shearwater, Allied, 50, 67. 

, .Ashy-backed, 50. 

, Brown-backed, 50, 67. 

, Fleshy-footed, 51, 67. 

-, Short-tailed, 51, 67. 

, Sombre, 67. 

, Sooty, 51, 67. 

, Wedge-tailed, 51, 67. 

Sheld-Drake, White-headed, 80. 
Shore Lark, 181. 
Shoveler, 59, 80. 
Shrike, Frontal, 117. 

, Great Northern. 180. 

Shrike Thrush, 99. 

, Brown, 99. 

, Buff-bellied, 99. 

, Little, 99. 

, Red-bellied 99. 

— _ Rufous-breasted, 99. 

, Stripe-breasted, 99. 

Shrike Tit, 100. 

, Yellow-bellied, 10. 

Sialia wilsonii, 180. 

, Wilson's, 180. 

sibirica, .Alanda, 158. 

, Melanocorypha, 158. 

, Tanagra, 158. 

f uliginosa, Muscicapa, 1 44. 

sibiricus, Turdus, 160. 
Silver Eye, 63. 

Grey-breasted, 109. 

simplex, Muscitrea, 93. 
Sitta affinis, 158. 
c:psia affinis, 158. 



Sitta eaesia ?jritannica, 158. 

varia, 180. 

Sittella albata, 10. 
Skimmer, Black, 181. 
Skua, Antarctic, 71. 

, Arctic, 55, 71. 

, Great, 55. 

, Pomarine, 71. 

, South Polar, 55. 

Smicrornis brevirostris, 92. 

smithi, Geophaps, 78. 

Smoker, 85. 

Snipe, 173. 

— • — , Australian, 55, 71. 

, Common, 130, 173. 

, Great, 173. 

, Jack, 173. 

, Jadreka, 173. 

— — , Painted, 71. 

, Pin-tailed, 71. 

, Spotted, 173. 

soderbei'gi, Mirafra javanica, 137. 
solitaria, Origmella, 97. 

, Scolopax, 128. 

, Tringa, 123. 

Somateria, 192. 

Song Lark, Brown, 96. 

, Rufous, 96. 

spaldingi, Macrorthonyx, 95. 
Sparrow Hawk, Collared, 83. 

, Coopers, 179. 

Spatherodia regia, 60, 82. 
Spatula, 192. 

clypeata, 135. 

• rhynchotis, 59, 80. 

speculifer, Tanagra, 141. 
Spermophila, 188. 
Spermospiza, 187. 
Sphecotheres flaviventi-is, 95. 

salvadorii, 95. 

vieilloti, 95. 

Sphenorhynchus, 141. 
Sphenorynchus abdiinii, 141. 
Sphenostoma cristatum, 100. 
Sphenura brachyptera, 98, 116. 
sphenurus, Haliastur, 83. 
Spilogiaux novfeseelandicO, 60, 83. 
Spinebill, 103. 

White-browed, 103. 

spinicollis, Carphibis, 81. 
spinosus, Hoplopterus, 151. 
Spizaetus, 185. 
splendens, Malurus, 98. 
splendida, Neophema, 84. 
spodoeephala, Emberiza, 160. 
Spoonbill, Black-billed, 82. 
, Roseate, 179. 

Spoonbill, Royal, 60. 

, Yellow-billed, 82. 

spurius, Purpureicephalus, 85. 
Squatarola squatarola, 74. 
stagnatilis, Iliornis, 72. 

, Tringa, 123. 

staperola, Motacilla, 132. 
Starling, 109, 310. 

, Shining, 107. 

Steganopleura bichenovii, 106. 
Steiglitz, 133. 
Steinhanfiing, 133. 
stellaris, Ardea, 135, 162. 

■, Butor, 162. 

Stercorarius parasiticus, 55, 71. 
Sterna, cinerea, 135, 149. 
— — dougalli, 70. 

gouldi, 135, 152. 

striata, 54, 70. 

vittata, 54. 

wilsonii, 181. 

Sternula albifrons, 70. 

placens, 10. 

nereis, 54, 70. 

Stictocarbo featherstoni , 53. 

punctatus, 53. 

Stictonetta nsevosa, 80. 
Stictopeleia cuneata, 78. 
Stigmatops indistincta, 103. 
Stilt, 56, 73. 
— ■ — ■, Banded, 73. 

, Black, 56. 

, White-headed, 73. 

Stiltia isabella, 57, 75. 
Stint, Long-toed, 72. 

, Red-necked, 55, 72. 

, Sharp-tailed, 55, 72. 

Stipiturus malachurus. 98, 137, 143. 

Stitch-Bird, 63. 

stitula, Strix, 132. 

Stolida cinerea, 135, 149, 150. 

stolidus, Anous, 54, 70. 

Stomioptera unicolor, 104. 

Stone Plover, 71. 

, Long-billed, 71. 

Storm-Petrel, Allied, 108. 

, Black, 108. 

— — , Black-bellied, 50, 67. 

, Grey-backed, 50. 

, Leach's, 181. 

, Samoan, 50. 

; Striped, 108. 

— — , White-belHed, 67, 108. 

, White-faced, 50, 66. 

, Yellow-webbed, 50, 66. 

Storm-Petrels, 50. 

strenua, Nesozosterops, 109. 



strenuus, Berneyornis, 84. 
Strepera, 187. 

fuliginosa,. 100. 

• graculina, 100. 

inelanoptera, 100. 

Streptopelia, 164. 
striata, Butorides, 81. 

•, Diapliorillas, 98. 

, Neosittella, 101. 

, Sterna, 54, 70. 

striatiis, Megalurus, 137. 

, Pardalotinus, 102. 

stricklandi, Gallinago, 128. 
stridula, Strix, 132. 
strigoides, Podargus, 88. 
Strigops, 189. 

habroptilus, 60. 

Strix, flammea, 180. 

nyctea, 194. 

stitula, 132. 

stridula, 132. 

Strobilophaga, 188. 

enucleator, 181. 

Struthidea, 187. 

cjnerea, 108. 

Stubble -Quail, 77. 
Sturnella ludoviciana, ISO. 
Sturnus carunculatus, 169. 
subarquatus, Aiicylochilus, 123. 
subcana, Fringilla, 132. 
subcristatus, Lophastur, 82. 
subfasciata, Glyciphila, 10. 
subminuta, Pisobia, 72. 
subniger, Notofalco, 82. 
Subspilura megala, 7 1 . 
Sula, 113. 

daetylatra, 112. 

leucogaster, 53, 69. 

sula, Piseatrix, 69. 
Sulita serrator, 54, 69. 
Sultana, Martinico, 180. 
smiiatrana, Gygisterna, 70. 
sumatranus, Tyxjhon, 80. 
Sun-Bird, 102. 
superba, Ptilinopus, 79. 
superbus, Trochilus, 193. 
siiperciliarjs, Drymodes, 95. 

, Turdus, 140. 

superciliosa. Anas, 59, 80. 

, Climacteris, 101. 

, Poecilodryas, 92. 

SQperciliosus, Acanthorhynchus, 103. 

, Campbellornis, 99. 

, Morganornis, 96. 

surinamensis, Pteropus, 174. 
Surnia, 186. 
fnnerea, 180. 

swainsonii, Polytelis, 86. 
Swallow, 91. 

, Australian Tree-, 62. 

, Barn, 180. 

, Black and White, 91. 

-, Short-tailed, 91. 

, Welcome, 91. 

Swamp-Hawk, 83. 
Swan, Bewick's, 179. 

, Black, 80. 

Swift, Madeira, 179. 

— — , Spine-tailed, 62, 90. 

, White-rumped, 62, 90. 

Swiftlet, Grey-rumped, 90. 

, Uniform, 90. 

sylvestris. Columba, 133. 

, Tricholimnas, 109. 

ater, Parus, 133. 

Sylvia arundinacea, 162. 

■ brunnea, 163. 

flavescens, 162. 

hippolais, 162, 163. 

locustella, 162. 

palustris, 163. 

phoenicurus, 163. 

sylvicola, 162. 

trochilus, 162. 

Sylvia, Uralcyon, 89. 
sulvicola, Ficaria, 162. 

, Ficedula, 162. 

, Sylvia, 162. 

Syma torotora, 89. 
Syinphemia, 129. 
Symposiachrus trivirgatus, 94. 
Sj^'nium, 186. 
Sja-rhaptes, 191. 

Tachybaptus poliocephalus, 74. 

ruficollis, 76. 

Tachyphonus, 187. 
Tadorna, 192. 
tadornoides, Casarca, 80. 
Tfpniopygia castanotis, 106. 
tahitina, Columba, 149. 
taitensis, Kiu'ukuru, 149. 

, Urodynamis, 61, 110. 

Takahe, 57. 
Tanager, Red, 181. 
Tanagra melanoxantha, 141. 

■ sibirica, 158. 

speculifera, 141. 

tanagra, Turnagra, 63. 
Tannenmaise, 133. 
Tantalus loculator, 181. 
Tanygnathus, 189. 
Tasmanornis humilis, 98. 
Tattler, Grey-rumped, 112. 



Tattler, Wandering, 72. 
Tavistocka guttata, 100, IIU. 
Teal, Garganey, 80. 

, Green Goose, 79. 

, Green-headed, 59, SO. 

, Grey, 59, 80. 

■ , White -quilled Goose, 79. 

temporalis, ^gintha, 106, 116. 

, Fringilla, 119. 

, Pomatostomus, 96. 

tenebricosa, Megastrix, 84. 
tenebrosa, Gallinula, 76. 
tenebrosus, Ethelornis, 92. 
tenuirostris, AcanthorhynchiLS, 103. 

, Anteliotringa, 71. 

— — , Larus, 157. 

, Licmetis, 86. 

, Megalopterus, 70. 

, Metagraucalus, 95. 

, Neonectris, 51, 67. 

, Nesozosterops, 110. 

tephropleura, Zosterops, 109. 
Terekia, 129. 

cinerea, 72. 

tereticoUis, Lariis, 150. 
Tern, Black-fronted, 54. 

, Black -naped, 70. 

, Bridled, 70. 

, Caspian, 54, 70. 

, Crested, 54, 70. 

, Fairy, 54, 70. 

, Gull-billed, 70. 

, Lesser Crested, 70. 

, Roseate, 70. 

, Short-tailed, 181. 

, Sooty, 54, 70. 

, Sub-antarctic, 54. 

, Whiskered, 70. 

, White, 54, 110. 

, White-fronted, 54, 70. 

, White-winged, 54, 70. 

.Wilson's, 181. 

Ternlet, White-faced, 70. 

, White-shafted, 70. 

teri-areginse, Collocalia, 10. 
Tetrao, 191. 

canadensis, 179. 

textilis, Diaphorillas, 98. 
Textor, 141. 
textrix, Fringilla, 141. 
Thalassarche bulled, 52. 

cVilororhynchus, 52, 08. 

chrj^sostoma, 52, 08. 

— — melanophris, 52, 68. 
Thalasseus, 112. 

' bengalensis, 70. 

bergii, 54, 70. 

Thalassidronia leachii, 181. 
Thalassiornis, 193. 
Thalassoica, atitarctica, 51. 
Thickhead, 110. 

, Big-billed, 93. 

, Black -lored, 93. 

, Black-tailed, 93. 

. Brown, 93. 

, Grev, 93. 

, Olive, 93. 

, Red-lored, 93. 

, Ruf us -breasted, 93. 

, White-bellied, 93. 

, White-throated, 93. 

Thinornis novjeseelandift, 56. 
thorpei, Donacola, 106. 
Threskiornis molucca, 82. 
Thrush, Ground, 96. 

, Black-eyed, 120. 

, North Island 63. 

, South Island, 63. 

, White-browed, 120. 

, White-eared, 120. 

Thyellodroma bulleri, 50. 

pacifica, 51, 67. 

tibicen, Gjannorhina, 100. 

Tiga, 189. 

tigrina, Alauda, 159. 

Timixos olivaceus, 93. 

Tinnunculus, 186. 

tintillon, Fringilla coelebs,'152. 

Tit, Black-Capt, 180. 

, Brown, 97. 

, Buff-runiped, 97. 

, Chestnut-rumped, 97. 

, Dark Brown, 97. 

, Little, 97. 

, Plain-coloured, 97. 

, Scrub, 98, 

, Striated, 97. 

, Thick-billed, 97. 

, Thin-billed, 97. 

, Tree, 92. 

, Yellow-rumped, 97. 

toitoi, Myiomoira, 62. 
Tomirdus tricolor, 75. 
Tomtit, North Island, 62. 

, South Island, 62. 

Tonophoyx aruensis, 81. 
torotoro, Syma, 89. 
torquata orientalis, Merida, 144. 
torquatus, Buleste.s, 100. 

, Peclionomus, 78. 

orientalis, Turdus, 144. 

Totanus, 125, 129. 
tractrac, Motacilla, 144. 
traversi, Nesomiro, 62. 


Traversia lyalli, 62. 
Treecreeper, Black -backed, 101. 

, Black-tailed, 101. 

, Brown, 101. 

, Red-browed, 101. 

, Rufous, 101. 

, White-browed, 101. 

, White -throated, 101. 

Tree-Martin, 91. 

Treervmner, Black-capped, 101. 

, Orange -winged, 101. 

, Striated, 101. 

— ^.White-headed, 101. 
Tree-Swallow, Australian, 62. 
Tree-Tit, 92. 
Tregellasia capito, 93. 

, leucops, 93. 

Treron, 190. 
Tribonj'x mortierii, 76. 
Trichoglossus, 188. 

hamatodus, 167. 

■ hsematopus, 167. 

moluccanus, 87, 116, 167. 

rubritorquis, 87. 

Tricholimnas sylvestris, 1 09. 
trichroa, Erythura, 106. 
tricolor, Lalage, 95. 

, Parephthianura, 96. 

, Tomirdus, 75. 

, Zonifer, 74. 

Tringa, 112, 125, 129. 

calidris, 123. 

^ flavipes, 123. 

nebularia, 123. 

ochropus, 123. 

solitaria, 123. 

stagnatilis, 123. 

Tringina?, 123, 124, 125, 128. 
Tringoides, 129. 

hypoleucos, 123. 

macularius, 123. 

trivirgatus, Symposiaclirus, 94. 
Trochilus clavigula, 148. 

colubris, 193. 

major, 162. 

medius, 162. 

minimus, 193. 

minor, 162. 

multicolor, 193. 

pella, 193. 

superbus, 193. 

trochilus, Sylvia, 162. 
Troglodytes bewickii, 180. 
Tropic Bird, Red-tailed, 54, 70. 

Bird, White-tailed, 69. 

tropica, Fregetta, 50, 67. 
Tropidorhynchus corniculatus, 105. 

Trynga alba, 26. 
Tryngites, 124, 125, 129. 
tubulata, Fregetta, 67. 
Tui, 63. 

tumulator, Megapodius, 166. 
tumulificus, Megapodiu.^, 166. 
tumulorum, Megapodius, 166. 
tumulus, Megapocliiis, 166. 
Turdus alpinus, 160. 

cristatus, 112. 

— — dauma ixiajor, 144. 

horsfieldi, 144. 

leucophrys, 120. 

leucotis, 120. 

major, 144. 

melanops, 120. 

montanus, 132. 

orientalis, 144. 

puniceus, 26. 

ruficollis, 160. 

sibiricus, 160. 

superciliaris, 140. 

torquatus orientalis, 144. 

varius, 137, 144, 145. 

viscivorus, 144. 

xanthopj^gos, 140. 

Turnagra capensis, 63. 

tanagra, 63. 

Turnix maculosa, 77. 
Turnstone. 56, 74, 181. 
TLu-tur, 164, 191. 
turtur, Columba, 164. 

, Pseudoprion, 52, 68. 

Twenty-eight, 85. 
Typhon sumatranus, 80. 
tyrannulus, Sericornis, 97. 
Tyto, 112. 

alba, 84. 

longimembris, 84. 

nova?hollandife, 84. 

iiltramarina, Alcedo, 194. 
vuidulata, Scolopax, 129. 
undulatus, Melopsittaeus, 84. 
vinicolor, Cyanorhamphus, 61. 

, Cypselus, 179. 

, Haematopus, 56, 74, 111. 

, Stomiojatera, 104. 

Uragus, 188. 
Uralcyon sylvia, 89. 
urinatrix, Pelecanoides, 52, 68. 
Uroaetus audax, 83, 116. 
Urodynamis taitensis, 61, 110. 
uropj^gialis, Acanthiza, 97. 
Urospiza fasciata, 83. 
Utamania, 193, 



validirostris, Melithreptus, 102. 
varia, Sitta, 180. 
vaiiegata, Casarca, 58. 

, Fulica, 134. 

, Motacilla, 132. 

variegatus, Certhionyx, 103. 
varigata, Motacilla, 132. 
varius, Hypoleucus, 53, 111. 

• , Marianornis, 77. 

, Psephotus, 85. 

, varius, Psephotus, 85. 

, Turdus, 137, 144, 145. 

velox, Alphaturnia, 77. 
ventralis, Microtribonyx, 76. 
venustus, Platycercus, 85. 
vereda, Eupodella, 56, 74. 
versicolor, Austropitta, 90. 

■ , Dorothina, 104. 

, Neostrepera, 100. 

■^ , Psitteuteles, 87. 

Vetola, 124, 129. 

haemastica, 55. 

lapponica, 55, 72. 

Vidgenia castaneiventris, 88. 
Vidua parauisea, 180. 
vieilloti, Sphecotheres, 95. 
violaceus, Ptilonorhynchus, 107. 
Virago castanea, 59, 80. 

gibberifrons, 59, 80. 

virescens, Dorothina, 104. 
virginiana, Bubo, 180. 

, Ortyx, 179. 

viscivorus, Tiirdus, 144. 
vittata, Amaurodryas, 92. 

, Pachyptila, 52, 68, 116. 

, Procellaria, 166. 

, Sterna, 54. 

vulgaris, Fringilla, 132. 

, Otus, 180. 

, Regulus, 162. 

Vultur, 185. 

Vulture, Sociable, 180. 

Wagtail, Yellow, 105. 
wallicus, Pezoporus, 84. 
Warbler, Chatham Islands, 63. 

, Grass, 96. 

, Grey, 62. 

Wasserhuhn, Braun und clunnschnab- 
lichten, 134. 

, Rostfarbige, 134. 

Water-Hen, Black-tailed, 76. 
V/attle-Bird, 105. 

, Brush, 105. 

, Red, 105. 

, Yellow, 64. 

Waxwing, Bohemian, 180. 

Weaver, Broadshafted Whidah, 180. 

Wedge-Bill. 100. 

Wee Juggler, 86. 

Weka, 57. 

westernensis, Creadion pai'adoxus, 

Wherrj'bill, Yellow-breasted, 94. 
Whimbrel, Australian, 55, 73. 

, Little, 55, 73. 

White-eye, 101. 

, Green-backed, 101. 

, Pale-belhed, 101. 

, Robust, 109. 

, Slender-billed, 110. 

, White-breasted, 110. 

, Yellow, 101. 

Whitefaee, 100. 

— — , Chestnut-breasted, 100. 

, Murchison, 100, 

whitei, Lacustroica, 103. 
Whitehead, 63. 
Whiteornis goodenovii, 91. 
Whitlocka melanota, 101. 

melanura, 101. 

rufa, 101. 

Willow Wren, Smallest, 162. 

•, Yellow, 162. 

Wilsonavis richmondi, 92. 
wilsoni, Callisas, 64. 
wilsonii, Sialia, 180. 

, Sterna, 181. 

Wonga-wonga, 79. 
Woodcock, 173. 

, American, 181. 

, Semi, 55. 

Woodhen, 57, 109. 

, Black, 57. 

, Brown, 57. 

Wood Ibis, 181. 
Woodpecker, Brazilian, 193. 

, Great Spotted, 193. 

, Least, 193. 

, Pileated, 193. 

, Red-headed, 181. 

, White-billed, 193. 

Wood Swallow, 99. 

■, Black-faced, 99. 

•, Little, 99. 

, Masked, 99. 

, White-browed, 99. 

, White-rumped, 99. 

woodwardi, Alphacincla, 99. 

, Magnamytis, 99. 

Wren, Banded" 98. 

, Bewick's, 180. 

, Black and White, 98. 

, Black and White Grass, 99. 



Wren, Black -backed, 98. 
Blue, 98. 

Blue -breasted, 98. 
Bush, 62. 
Emu, 98, 121. 
Field, 96. 
Grass, 98. 
Ground, 95. 
Lake Eyre Grass, 99. 
Lovely," 98. 
Purple-crowned, 98. 
Red-backed, 98. 
Red-winged, 98. 
Rock, 62. 

Stephens Islands, 62. 
Striated Field, 96. 
Striated Grass, 98. 
Western Ground, 95. 
White -throated Grass, 99. 
White-winged, 98. 
Variegated, 98. 

Xema lambruschinii, 157. 
xanthocoUis, Fringilla, 148. 
xanthoprocta, Pachycephala, 110. 
xanthopus, Planesticus, 109. 
xanthopygos, Turdus, 140. 
Xanthotis flavi venter, 105. 
Xenicus gilviventris, 62. 

longipes, 62. 

Xenorhynchus asiaticus, 81. 
Xerophila pectoralis, 9. 

Xipidiorhynchus, 152. 
Xylocota, 129. 

yarrellia, Motacilla alba, 182. 
yarrellii, Motacilla alba, 140. 
Yellowhead, 63. 
yeltoniensis, Alauda, 158. 
Yephantes baltimore, 180. 
yorki, Philemon, 105. 
Yunx, 190. 
Ypsilophorus ypsilophorus, 77. 

Zanclostomus, 190. 
Zanda baudinii, 86. 

funerea, 86, 116. 

Zanthoniiza phrygia, 103. 
Zaporina galinellar, 162. 

minvita, 135, 162. 

pusilla, 57, 76. 

Zenaida amabilis, 179. 
Zona-ginthus bellus, 106. 

oculatus, 106. 

zonarius, Barnardius, 85. 
Zonifer tricolor, 74. 
Zonotrichia, 187. 
Zoonava francica, 90. 

fuciphaga, 90. 

Zosterops albiventris, 101. 

gouldi 101. 

lateralis, 63, 101. 

lutea, 101. 

tephropleura, 109. 


Austral Avian Record 

Is published at irregular intervals, about four times 
per year, in parts of about 24 pages each, and 
often with a coloured Plate ; eight parts form 
a volume. Price per volume 12/- post free. 

The "Austral Avian Record" contains : 

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species and subspecies of particular genera, especially 
those which will not be dealt with in the immediate 
future in Mathews's "Birds of Australia," or those 
that have been. 

2. Revision of what has been published in the " Birds of 

AustraHa," when accession of material and new facts 
necessitate such revision. 

3. Description of new forms. 

4. Discussions regarding nomenclature. 

5. Supplements to the " Reference List of the ' Birds of 

Australia.' " 

6. Dates of Publication of works about which any doubt 


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